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T^ COMPENDIUM 

OF 

[ATURAL FEATURES 
INFORMATION 



VOLUME I 



COMPILED I'.Y : MARYLAND DEPARTMENT of STATE 
PLANNING • SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CENTER 
for NATURAL AREAS 

li ^-'^^ 197 5 



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^^. 






COMPENDIUM 

of NATURAL FEATURES 

INFORMATION 

VOLUME I 

compiled by 

MARYLAND DEPARTMENT of STATE PLANNING 

and 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CENTER 
for NATURAL AREAS 



MAY 1975 



TITLE: COMPENDIUM OF NATURAL FEATURES INFORMATION 

COMPILED BY: MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF STATE PLANNING 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE CENTER FOR NATURAL ARbAS 

DATE: May 1973 



SUBJECT: This compendium has been prepared as a resource document for 
those who are interested in Maryland's Natural Heritage. 
Volume I of the Compendium discusses the sources of the 
information used to update the Catalog of Natural Features 
prepared by the Department of State Planning and reproduces 
in its entirety the Report of the Smithsonian Institution 
Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region: Ecological 
Priorities. Maps prepared to supplement the discussion 
are reproduced in Volume II. 

AGENCY: Maryland Department of State Planning 

SOURCE OF COPIES: Maryland Department of State Planning 

301 W. Preston Street 
Baltimore, MD 21201 

HUD PROJECT NO. P-1U13-500 



The preparation of this report was financed in part through a comprehensive 
planning grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development 
as administered by the Maryland Department of State Planning. 

10 7 



PREFACE 



This Compendium has been prepared as a resource document for those who 
are interested in Maryland's Natural Heritage. The material included has 
been derived from a wide range of sources, and has been compiled by two 
organizations: The Maryland Department of State Planning, and the Center 
for Natural Areas, Ecology Program, Smithsonian Institution. The Compendium 
is organized in two volumes: Volume I contains descriptive and bibliographic 
material on the various natural features. Volume II contains maps of the 
natural feature locations. 

The Compendium was prepared to serve as a resource document for State 
and local planning. The information contained in it will be incorporated 
into the Generalized State Land Use Plan. The Compendium should be of equal 
value to local governments for use in the preparation of both comprehensive 
and functional planning as well as In program implementation. As an example, 
the information should be of particular value to local governments and other 
interested individuals in formulating their recommendations for areas which 
might be designated by the Department of State Planning as Areas of Critical 
State Concern. 

The material provided by the Maryland Department of State Planning is 
presented as an update to the Catalog of Natural Features in Maryland. 
Section I of Volume I of the Compendium discusses the sources of the infor- 
mation used to update the original catalog, summarizes the type, location, and 
size of the various natural features and provides a bibliography of reference 
material related generally to natural heritage studies and Maryland's natural 
features In particular. A llntlng of bIIps within th<* Department's inventory 



iii 



is included and they in turn are numerically referenced to a set of County 
maps, depicting the location of the various sites. Reproductions of the 
County maps are contained in Volume II of the Compendium. 

The second section of Volume I reproduces in its entirety the Report 
of the Smithsonian Institution Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region: 
Ecological Priorities . This report, previously available through a very 
limited distribution, is being reproduced by the Department of State Plan- 
ning because it represents the largest singular effort in assessing many 
of the States' coastal resources. The report has not been edited by the 
Department and the findings and conclusions are those of the original authors. 
It should be noted that those findings were substantiated by numerous pro- 
fessionals expert in the natural and physical sciences. Maps prepared to 
supplement the discussion of the Smithsonian report are reproduced within 
Volume II. 

Much of the data collected by the Department and the Smithsonian were 
obtained in 19 73 and 197A. The reader should take into account that natural 
features information is frequently dynamic as are the influences on those 
sites. 

We trust that this information will be useful to many and hope that 
those who make use of it will keep the authors advised of new findings 
concerning these areas or additional sites. 



IV 



Table of Contents 



VOLUME 



SECTION 



Catalog of Natural Features in Maryland: 
An Update 



SECTION II: Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region: 
Ecological Priorities 



VOLUME II 



APPENDIX 



Map Supplement 

Maryland Natural Area Survey 



APPENDIX il; 



Map Supplement 

Chesapeake Bay Natural Areas Survey 



SECTION I 



Catalog of Natural 
Features in Maryland 



AN UPDATE 

Maryland Department 
of State Planning 



HONORABLE MARVIN MANDEL 
GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF MARYLAND 



Vladimir A. Wahbe, Secretary 
Department of State Planning 



STATE PLANNING COMMISSION 

Saul I. Stern, Chairman 
Senator John P. Corderman Delegate John R. Hargreaves 

Edward W. Cooey Carlton R. Sickles 

Joseph B. Francus Sidney H, Tinley 

Arnold M. Kronstadt Vera York Sherwell 



STAFF 

*Edwin L. Thomas, Director 
Comprehensive State Planning Division 



Raymond J. Puzio, Chief 
Environmental and Physical 
Resources Planning Section 

C Alpert, Planner 

* J« Antenucci, Planner 
T. Bishop, Planner 

R. English, Planner 
L. Fogelson, Planner 

* J. Garber, Planner 
M. Halka, Planner 
J. Hausner, Planner 
G. Marx, Planner 

J. Morgan, Planner 

J. Noonan, Planner 

* D. Outen, Planner 

* A. Welch, Illustrator 



Research Analysts 



* F. 


Bentz 


* J. 


Blucher 


* M. 


Everett 


* M. 


Kelley 


* S. 


Maisenhalder 


* G. 


Minsky 


* J. 


Robinson 


* K. 


Ruppalt 


* L. 


Shopes 


* S. 


Troy 


* A. 


Wolfe 



♦Participants 



MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF STATE PLANNING 

State Office Building 

Baltimore, Maryland 21201 



Publication No, 231 



I : INTRODUCTION 



The Catalog of Natural Features in Maryland was initially published 
in 1968 by the Department of State Planning. Since that time, it has served 
as a reference for general planning, and much of the data was incorporated 
into the Maryland Outdoor Recreation and Open Space Plan. The Department 
initiated a revision of the Catalog in 1973 to expand (and in some cases to modify) 
the original information. Several data collection methods, including surveys 
and personal interviews, were undertaken to expand the scope of the Catalog. 



Maryland Dopnrtment of State Planning (R.C. Mctzgar, comp. ) Catalog of 
Natur/il ArfeOB In Maryland . Baltimore, Maryland, Department of State 
Planning, 1968: hereafter cited as the Catalog. 



II : NATURAL FEATURES UPDATE 

The Update was based on the Department of State Planning 's Catalog 
of Natural Areas in Maryland. The 175 sites listed in the Catalog provided 
an initial data source. In that it had been six years since the data collection 



effort was completed for the Catalog , the first effort was to update those 
sites listed. Each listed site was reviewed by the Department of State Plan- 
ning staff. Every effort, with the exception of field verification, was made 
to insure that the sites listed in the Catalog were accurately described. 
Some sites, in fact, were deleted due to recent urban encroachment. 

Another primary data source was the survey of ecologically important 

* 

Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region . The excellent maps and supportive 

text material of the Survey were incorporated into the Update while still in 
draft form. The Survey not only provided more specific data on many sites 
that were noted briefly in other sources, but also contributed many additional 
sites. 

Other peripheral data collection and verification efforts - surveys 
and personal interviews - were also undertaken. While the two data sources 
indicated above provided the majority of the sites in the Update, peripheral 
efforts verified the sites. 

During the summer of 1973, the Department of State Planning mailed 
a questionnaire to several thousand interested individuals and groups in order 
to obtain their assistance in updating the Catalog. The Maryland Environ- 
mental Trust joined with the Department of St^te Planning in conducting this 
survey. The letter from the Maryland Environmental Trust, enclosed with the 



I 



if 
Smithsonian Institution, Center for Natural Areas (D.W. Jenkins, com.). Natural 

Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region : Ecological Priorities, Washington, D.C. 
Washington, D.C. Center for Natural Areas, unpublished; hereafter cites as the 
Survey , (see Volume II) 



questionnaire forms and brochure, states that: 

"... it is of the utmost importance that all unique natural 
areas be identified so that they can be made a part of the 
inventory. 

This is where you, the citizens, can play a crucial role. 
The professionals with the State have, themselves, been in- 
ventorying Maryland's natural areas. However, there are surely 
areas within the State that are of ecological value which may 
not be known to them but which may be known to you, to a friend, 
or to someone in your area. 

The purpose of the enclosed material is to provide you 
with an opportunity to identify these areas so that the natural 
features document can be as complete as is humanly possible* 
The information you supply will become a part of the Department's 
inventory. . ." 

Prior to this questionnaire, the Department of State Planning's 
staff made a lengthy search of existing publications and documents that 
contained references to unique natural features and scenic areas in Mary- 
land. Initially, departmental material, including all pertinent material 
in the Department of State Planning library, was inventoried and analyzed. 
Subsequently, the libraries of other State agencies, particularly the 
Department of Natural Resources, as well as local college and university 
libraries were Inventoried. A bibliography was created under the direction 
of a natural resources planner by an individual skilled in library science. 
Together, they produced a bibliography of material that proved to be useful 
In updating the Catalog . 

The questionnAlre expanded and, in some cases, verified infor- 
mation obtained about sites discovered during the literature search. In 
addition, Department of State Planning staff sought more current information 
In order to "standardize" the coverage of the inventory. 

This Information was obtained by interviewing recognized experts 
on geographic areas or specific subjects. Their extensive field work proved 



to be an important source of data previously misBing from the inventory. 
In addition, they assisted in making the quality of the inventory more 
uniform. 

Personal and telephone interviews were conducted. The Department 
of State Planning staff attempted to contact anyone who could possibly con- 
tribute to the effort. Quite often these interviews made the staff aware of 
additional contact persons. This "chain-line" process increased the time 
spent, but usually paid dividends in information. In all, nearly fifty 
specialists were interviewed. 

Information from these diverse sources was combined, analyzed, 
and mapped to form one cohesive inventory. Every sort of unique natural 
feature and scenic area imaginable has been included. No effort was made 
to compare similar sites, or to qualitatively evaluate different kinds of 
sites. All sites were mapped at a scale of 1"=1 mile (1:63,360). At this 
scale, some sites were represented as "point" information. An example of 
this kind of data would be an individual Maryland Champion Tree. "Area" 
information was also mapped; the boundaries of these areas were described as 
accurately as possible in order to reflect the configuration of the site. 



Ill .INFORMATION TYPES 



For the purpose of analysis, the diverse sites inventoried were 

further grouped into thirteen categories, including: 

Archaeological Sites Wildlife Habitats 

Caves Wetlands 

Rock Outcrops Stream Valleys 

Lakes or Ponds Scenic Areas 

Springs wilderness Areas (DNR proposed) 

Natural AreaS Nesting Sites 
Champion Trees 

In several cases, a site had to be evaluated in some detail in order to 

determine in which category it should be grouped. Sites were categorized 

based on the primary attribute or importance of the site. Many sites, how-^ 

ever, could have been placed in more than one group. Obviously, additional 

information or a slightly different perspective could change the number of 

sites and acres subcategorized in Table 1. 

Before considering an analysis of the data in the Revision , some 
additional explanation of the manner in which data were compiled is in order. 
In several instances, the sizes of the archaeological sites, caves, and geologic 
formation outcrops were "regularized" in order to approximate their extent. 
Since the actual extent of many sites will be unknown until subsurface explor- 
ations are conducted, this technique seemed reasonable. As a result, the 
total acreage for archaeological sites and caves are only representative, and 
the actual extent of the site as indicated on the map may not be exact. 

Tho "Natural Areas" category was used for those sites which include 
several equally significant attributes. For example, a site that "blends" 
from an oak-hickory forest to n wftiaiul nnd Is an idcol habitat for an 
endangered spoclcs coulH nf)t. criuitnbly be classified as only one of tho nbovp. 



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Further, the Department of State Planning staff did not subdivide such areas 
into their respective parts since this would have been inappropriate with re- 
spect to the detail of the inventory. 

The "Wilderness Areas" inventoried* are those proposed by the 
Department of Natural Resources in conformance with the standards established 
by that Department. All such Wilderness Areas will be located on property 
already owned by the State. The designation of land as a Wilderness Area 
does not indicate additional State purchase-- it is only a subclassif ication 
of State-owned property. 

Areas identified for their "Scenic" attributes were recommended 
by a variety of resources and include many large areas such as the Middle- 
town Valley in Washington County. The extent (acreage) of these areas inflate 
the totals for the various counties. The recommendations, based on questionnaire 
response and interview, were made in part by several local governments, the 
State Highway Administration, and several historical societies. 

The "Nesting Sites" of eagles, osprey and herons, obtained primarily 
from the Survey and the Department of Natural Resources, were not measured. 
Their frequency, location and distribution, however, could be described. 

All "Champion Trees" compiled by the Department of Natural Resources 
were Included. Should information on the extent or character of champion 
trees be necessary, the original publication can be consulted. 

Several tables have been compiled to provide an indication of the 
frequency and distribution of natural features in Maryland. These sites 
can be referenced using Appendix A 6 B of this Section and the county maps 
found In Volume II. 



* Sec Appendix C 



Seven hundred and thirteen sites, not including nesting sites and 
champion trees, are considered in the inventory. Washington County contains 
the largest number of sites inventoried, while Baltimore City contains the 
least. The average number of sites inventoried for a county is 30 (See 
Tables 2-4). 

The summary tables show (Table 2-4) several unusual features which 
deserve further attention. First, though Washington County has the largest 
number of sites (due to the large number of caves in the carbonate rocks of 
Washington County), it is at the low end of the spectrum of total acreage. 
Second, Dorchester County has the largest amount of acreage by far, yet one 
site in public ownership (Blackwater Refuge) contains over 23,500 acres. 
Third, while Montgomery County has a large number of sites, it has the small- 
est total acreage within the inventory: a substantial number of small scenic 
areas has inflated the total number of sites. Fourth, Frederick County has 
the third largest total acreage within the inventory: a substantial number 
of large scenic areas has inflated the total acreage. 

In Allegany County, three natural areas account for over 95 per- 
cent of area inventoried. Three-quarters of the acreage for Anne Arundel 
County are wetlands. As expected, the major category for most of the eastern 
shore counties is wetlands. Howard County has the least diverse inventory; 
stream valleys and scenic areas comprise all but five acres, and seven of 
the eight sites listed. Washington County has the largest number of caves, 
as well as a substantial number of geologic formation outcrops. 

It should be remembered that the previous analysis was designed 
to provide an illustration of the information as it now exists. CONCLUSIONS 
SHOULD NOT BE DRAWN ABOUT THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OR CRITICALITY OF SITES, OR 
QUALITATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COUNTIES AS A RESULT OF THIS COMPARISON. 



Efforts were made to "even out" coverage whenever possible; differences, how- 
ever, still exist within the inventory which are due to the inconsistencies 
of the original data collection process. Some counties, through their own 
efforts or those of interested experts, have "better" or "more" original data. 

It seems likely that as this inventory becomes more widely dis- 
tributed, the contributions of concerned agencies and individuals will have 
a tendency to equalize the quality and quantity of the inventory. This in- 
ventory is considered to be unique in that it is the first produced for the 
entire State, yet it still must be thought of as preliminary. 

Supporting data may be examined at the Department of State Planning' s 
Baltimore Office upon request. 



TABLE 2 - COiraTY SITE SUMMARY 



Jxirisdiction 

Allegany County 
Anne Arundel County 
Baltimore Coirnty 
Baltimore City 
Calvert County 
Caroline County*^ 
Carroll County 
Cecil County 
Charles County 
Dorchester County 
Frederick County 
Garrett County 
Harford County 
Howard Coiinty^ 
Kent Coimty 
Montgomery County^ 

Prince George's County 

2 

Queen Anne's County 

St. Mary's Coimty 
Somerset Cotmty 
Talbot County 
Washington County 
Wicomico County 
Worcester County 



Sites* 


Area of Sites 


Approx. % in 


(Number) 


(Acres) 


Public Ownership 


39 


U5,88i 


52% 


U3 


17,220 


16% 


U2 


38,816 


hT/o 


5 


5,376 


2B% 


lU 


ii,U23 


1% 


15 


10,378 


8% 


7 


ii,3U2 


^y/o 


23 


27,555 


66% 


25 


52,077 


5% 


18 


155,U3U 


15% 


37 


87,661 


22% 


U3 


97,690 


hT/o 


19 


33,214+ 


53% 


8 


12,136 


38% 


18 


15,683 


1U% 


76 


6,9U0 


U3% 


hi 


1U,02U 


29% 


20 


18,735 


8% 


19 


7,911 


2% 


13 


57,310 


89% 


15 


ll,U73 


3% 


85 


17,775 


5U% 


20 


16,226 


7% 


28 


53.08U 


?2% 


679 


825,391; 


3U% 



* Excluding nesting sites and champion trees 

1 AlleganyA^ashington Wash 9OO-O89 - site is counted and acreage is accoionted 

Alleg 900-181+ 
for in Allegany Coronty, 

2 Queen Anne ' s/Caro line Coimty site 900 (in both counties )-site extends into 
each county but total acreage is accounted for in Caroline County only - 
site is co\mted in Caroline 

3 Montgomery/Howard site 900 in each county - site is counted and acreage is 
accounted for in Howard County ' 



10 



TABLE 3 - STATEWIDE SITE CATEGORIES SUMMARY 



Site Categpriea 

Archeological Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Areas 



Total 

Nesting Sites* 

Champion Trees 



Sites 
(Nixmber) 

55 
lou 

U6 

23 

9 

119 

52 
126 

17 
122 

39 



713 



** 



369 

115 



A5?ea of Sites 
(Acres) 

929 

1,159 
16,011+ 

5,9U7 
623 

191^,695 

60,361+ 

3i|l,776 

iU;,599 

153,016 

W,U12 



86U,53U 



*** 



* Eagle, OBprey, Heron 
** 3A Areas are included in other site categories - net site total is 679 
♦*♦ Includes J9,l^0 acres of potential wildlande that are included in other 
site categories - not area total is 825,394 



11 



TABLE 4: COUNTY SITE CATEGORIES 



site Categories 

Archeological Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Allegany County Site Categories 

Number 

2 

22 
2 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



7 

6** 
45 



45 



Acres 

15 

103 

4,282 

81 
33,453 



4,947 
12,250* 
45,881 



45,881 



Allegany Co u nty 

* S,25U acres are already included in other areas - only 3,000 acres are added here. 
** 1 site is shared with Washington County, but all acreage is shown here. 



Site Categories 
Archeological Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Anne Arundel County Site Categories 

Number 
12 



2 
3 

13 

2 

11 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



43 
14 
17 

74 



Acres 
52 

12 
594 

4,458 

707 

11,397 



17,220 
14 
17 

17,251 



12 



TABLE 4 con't 



site CatcRorles 

Archeologlcal Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 

Bird Neats 
Champion Trees 



SUMMARY 
Baltimore County Site Categories 

Number 

12 
2 
1 



9 
■ 2 

4 
6 

6 

2 

Subtotal ^^ 

19 
Total 63 



Acres 

10 
10 

400 



4,897 

1,012 

2,390 

16,876 

12,721 

1,175* 
38,816 

19 
38,835 



Baltlr.ore County 
* 675 acres are already Included In other sites, only 500 acres are added here. 



SUMMARY 



Site Categories 
Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetland* 
Stream Valli.-ys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



Baltimore City 



Bird Nests 
Champion Tree* 



Subtotal 



Total 



Site Categories 

Number 
1 



Acres 



1,8 74 
3 , ^00 

5,376 

3 

5,370 



13 



TABLE 4 con't 



SUMMARY 
Calvert County Site Categories 



Site CateRorles 

Archeoioglcal Sitae 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 

Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Number 



Subtotal 



Total 



7 
1 
1 

14 
6 

20 



Acres 



575 



2,1A8 

7,148 

1,452 

100 

11,423 
6 

11,429 



Site CateRories 
Archeological Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Caroline County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



3 
1 
7 

1 

1* 

16 

1 

17 



Acres 



154 

3,081 
1,523 
5,046 

24 

550 

10,378 

1 
10,379 



Caroline County 
* This site is shared with Queen Anne's County, but all acreage is shown here^ 



14 



TABLE 4 con't 



site Categories 

Archeological Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Carroll County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



3 

10 



Acres 



10 



78 



5,307 
5,9A7 

11,342 

3 

11,345 



Site Categories 
Archeolaglcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
l^.'itural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetland* 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Cecil County Site Categories 

Number 
3 



Bird Ncata 
Chanpion Trees 



Subtotol 



Total 



23 
2 
5 

30 



Acres 



2,780 



4,174 

4,417 

16,059 

116 

27,550 
2 
5 

27,562 



t5 



TABLE 4 con't 



site CatcRorlee 

Archeological Sites 

Cavee 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 

Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



SUMMARY 
Charles County Site Categories 



Number 



Subtotal 



1 
14 



Total 



25 

35 

1 

61 



Acres 
190 

1,280 



17,720 

1,690 

31,197 



52,077 

35 
1 

52,113 



Site CateRories 
Archeological Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Dorchester County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



2 

3 

10 



1 
18 
2A 

42 



Acres 



170 

354 

20,426 

134,482 

934* 
155,434 
24 

155,458 



Dorche ster County 
* All acreage is already included In other areas. 

16 



TABLE 4 con't 



Site CatcRorles 

Archeological Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 

Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



SUMMARY 
Frederick County Site Categories 

Number 

3 
9 



Subtotal 



16 

3 

W 

1 

41 



Total 
Frederick County 
* All acreage is already included in other sites. 



Acres 

20 

45 

105 

10,128 
60 



77,303 
4,100* 
87,661 

1 

87,662 



Site Categories 
Archeological Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



Bird Ne»t» 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



SUMMARY 
Garrett County Site Categories 

Number 

2 
12 

2 

1 

1 

5 

A 

6 

2 

8 
16 
59 

4 
63 



Acres 

8 

36 

8 

4,057 

5 

65,466 

316 

1,293 

3,238 

22,763 

16.415* 

9 7,690 

4 

9 / , 694 



Csrrct^ County 

* 15,915 dcrrn n r «• nlrrnrly Included In other ar»nii - only 500 ncn-u /in- (idflcd Imto 



17 



TABLE 4 con't 



site Categories 

Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 

Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



SUMMARY 
Harford County Site Categories 

Number 
1 

2 



4 
3 
4 
1 
4 

19 

15 
34 



Acres 



10 



1,585 



2,360 
2,919 
18,292 
5,800 
2,278 

33,244 

15 
33,259 



Site Categories 
Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Howard County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



2 
5 

1* 
9 

3 
12 



Acres 



4, 


,500 


6, 


,831 




800 


12, 


.136 




3 


12, 


,139 



Howard County 
* This site is shared with Montgomery County, but all acreage is shown here. 



18 



TABLE 4con't 



Site Categories 

Archeologlcal Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



SUMMARY 
Kent County Site Categories 

Number 



2 
3 

1 
4 
5 



18 
4 
1 

23 



Acres 



921 
176 

150 

6,A28 
7,745 

260 

15,683 
4 

1 
15,688 



Site Categories 
Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderncas Area 



SUMMARY 
Montgomery County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



10 
9 

1 

46 

* 

76 

11 
87 



Acres 
11 



421 



1,575 
3,026 

3 
1,904 

6 , 940 

II 
6,951 



Mon tgom ery County 
* A site 1. chared with Howard County; oU ncrcnRC to Included In H<,w;.rd County. 



19 



TABLE 4 con't 



site Categories 

Archeologlcal Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Prince George's County Site Categories 

Number 



8 
I 

5 
6 

18 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



47 

6 

53 



Acres 
356 

185 
237 

332 

6,597 
4,455 

1,862 

14,024 

6 
14,030 



Site Categories 
Archeological Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Queen Anne's County Site Categories 
Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



1 
* 

20 

46 

5 

71 



Acres 

1,600 
100 

10,666 

3,669 

2,700 

18,735 
46 
. 5 

18,786 



Queen Anne ' s 
* A site is shared with Caroline County - all acreage is included in Caroline County. 

20 



TABLE 4 con't 



site Categoriea 

Archeologlcal Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
St. Mary's County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



19 

61 

2 

82 



Acres 
200 

1,130 

10 

5,760 

64 

7A7 



7,911 

61 

2 

7,974 



Site Categories 
Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Somerset County Site Categories 
Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



1 
1 
2 
5 

2 

A 

15 

9 

5 

29 



Acres 



1 

1,200 

2,560 

44,074 

8,553 

6,602* 

57,310 

9 

5 

57,324 



So«€rsst County 
• S,680 acrea arr Included In other arsas - only 922 acres nr«! ofldcd here. 

21 



TABLE 4 con't 



site Categories 

Archeologlcal Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 

Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



SUMMAKY 
Talbot County Site Categories 

Number 



Subtotal 



Total 



15 

167 

9 

191 



Acres 



400 



4,034 

758 

3,253 

3,026 

11,473 

167 

9 

11,649 



Site Categories 
Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



SUMMARY 
Washington County Site Categories 

Number 
2 
56 
9 
1 
2 
2 
2 



1 
9 

* 

84 



3 
87 



Acres 
35 

950 

435 

5 

7 

4,835 

5,946 

3,923 
1,639 

17,775 

3 

17,778 



Washington County 
* A site is shared with Allegany County - all acreage is included In Allegany County. 



22 



TABLE 4 con't 



Site CateRorlea 

Archeologlcal Sites 

Caves 

Rock Outcrops 

Lakes and Ponds 

Springs 

Natural Areas 

Wildlife Habitats 

Wetlands 

Stream Valleys 

Scenic Areas 

Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Wicomico County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Champion Trees 



Subtotal 



Total 



6 
1 
6 
1 
6 



20 



20 



Acres 



157 

519 

4,940 

140 

10,470 



16,226 



16,226 



Site Categories 
Archeologlcal Sites 
Caves 

Rock Outcrops 
Lakes and Ponds 
Springs 
Natural Areas 
Wildlife Habitats 
Wetlands 
Stream Valleys 
Scenic Areas 
Wilderness Area 



SUMMARY 
Worcester County Site Categories 

Number 



Bird Nests 
Cliamplon Treei 



Subtotal 



Total 



10 
5 
6 

2 

5 

31 

1 

1 

33 



Acres 



192 

11,012 

1,773 

40,059 

42 

2,586* 

53,084 

1 

1 

53,87(. 



Worcofr County 
* All acraage Includad In ol)i«r altca. 



23 



IV : ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



During the revision of the Catalog of Natural Features , many 
people shared their expertise with the Department of State Planning in inter- 
views and letters from July to November of 1974. The Department of State 
Planning wishes to acknowledge their valuable contributions. Their information 
on Maryland's natural features made the revision possible. 

We would like to note particularly the support and assistance pro- 
vided by Maryland Environmental Trust, its director, Mr. Paul Allen and its 
capable staff. The Trust assisted in the development and distribution of 
the questionnaire used in the early stages of the Department's efforts. 

Mr. A. H. Jones, (.Chairman, Birds of the World), and Ms. Elizabeth 
Hartline (.Hydes naturalist) were kind enough to suggest possible sources for 
interviews. 

Mr. Chandler Robbins (.State Ornithologist, Patuxent Research Center) 
supplied helpful information on the birds of Maryland; Mr. Vernon Stotts 
(Ecologist, Department of Natural Resources) helped with listings of duck 
nesting areas in Maryland. The Girl Scouts of Central Maryland prepared a 
list of birds and plants near the Potomac River in Montgomery County. Mr. 
Elmer Worthley (.Botanist, Edgewood Proving Ground) provided information on 
rare plants in Maryland. 

Many contributors were particularly helpful in supplying facts on 
particular geographical areas in the State. County planning agencies provided 
data about their respective counties. Mr. Arthur Cronson (Anne Arundel County 
Office of Planning and Zoning) provided a draft copy of Anne Arundel Technical 
Report Number Five ; Mr. Joseph E. Knepper (Planner, Anne Arundel County Board 
of Education) informed us on a variety of topics related to natural areas in 

24 



Anne Arundel County; and Mr. John M. Morgan III (.formerly Baltimore County 
Office of Planning and Zoning; provided information on natural areas in 
Baltimore County. 

Facts about the Chesapeake Bay's natural areas were provided by 
Mr. William F. Nickel III (Nature Conservancy Project Coordinator); Dr. 
Donald Emerson (.Professor, Department of Biology, Frostburg State College; 
furnished data on the Frostburg area. Mr. Earl Mentzer (.Department of Employ- 
ment and Social Services; supplied information on Frederick and Washington 
Counties. 

Mr. Charles Anderson (Landscape and Architecture Division, State 
Highway Administration) listed scenic areas owned by his agency. Tyler 
Bastian (Maryland State Archeologist) catalogued important archaeological sites. 

Several contributors shared technical reports and studies which 
increased the understanding of critical environmental areas. Frank Ugolini 
(Natural Landmarks Division, U. S. Department of the Interior) provided por- 
tions of the Potenital Natural Landmark Natural Regions Studies : Gary Waggoner, 
also of the N.L.D. , provided Eastern Deciduous Forest Theme Study . Frederick 
R. Swan, Jr. (Professor of Biology, West Liberty State College) supplied the 
Demonstration Pro ject for a^ Metropolitan Region Natural Area Survey . 

Mr. Steven Kiely (Director, Center for Natural Areas, Smithsonian 
Institution) shared the Symposium Results of the Workshop on Environmental 
Inventories . John E. Cooper (Community College of Baltimore) provided the 
Report on Endangered Amphlblana of Mnry land . 

Dr. Kenneth Weaver (Director, Maryland Geological Survey) nnd Dnvid 
S. Lee (Curator, Department of Mnmmology, Natural History Society of Maryland) 
aided uo with expertise on n v.-irieLy of topics. 'I'lio Department of State 



25 



Planning Is indebted to the above for their interest and assistance, and 
to all those who responded to the Department's questionnaire on potential 
natural features. 



26 



V: BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Antioch College and the Middle Patuxent Valley Association. Report on the 

Inventory of the Middle Patuxent River Valley . Columbia, Maryland: 
Antioch College, 1971. 

Baltimore Environmental Center and the Regional Planning Council. Environ- 
mental Resources in the Baltimore Region . Baltimore: 1972. 

Bureau of Economic Geology. Brown, L. F. , W. L. Fisher, A. W. Erxieben, and 
J. H. McGowen. Resource Capability Units-Their Utility in Land- 
and Water-Use Management with Examples from the Texas Coastal Zone 
(Geological Circular 71-1) . Austin: University of Texas, 1971. 

California Tomorrow. California Tomorrow and Skidmore, Owings 6c Merrill. 
The California Tomorrow - A First Sketch . San Francisco: 1971. 

Connecticut Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Whyte, William 
H. Connecticut's Natural Resources - A Proposal for Action . 
Hartford: 1962. 

The Conservation Foundation. Harvard University Landscape Architecture 
Research Office. Three Approaches to Environmental Resources 
Analysis . Washington, D.C. : 1967. 

Conservation Foundation. Swan, Frederick R. Jr. Demonstration Project for 
a Metropolitan Natural Area Survey . Washington, D.C. : 1968. 

Department of City and Regional Planning and Landscape Architecture. Delmarva 
Area Study . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University School 
of Design, 1966. 

Department of Natural Resources. Tans, William. Priority Ranking of Biotic 
Natural Areas . Madison, Wisconsin, 196/. 

Environmental Planning and Policy Center. The Caves Valley: An Ecological 
Approach to Planning . Columbia, Maryland: Antioch College, 1972. 

Gunther, J. D. "How to Preserve Small Natural Areas", Catalyst , (Number 3, 
1973), p. 19-22. 

Lathrop E. Smith-Meadows Ido Nature Center. Nopper, William and Mike Uwyer. 
Survey of Unique Natural FeaturoR, Montgomory County 1973-74 
Environmental Inventory. Rockvllle, Marylnnd.: Unpublished. 



27 



Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Maryland Forest Service. Yingling, 
Earl L. The Big Tree Champions of Maryland . Annapolis, Maryland: 
1973- 

Maryland Department of State Planning. Scenic Rivers in Maryland . Baltimore: 
1970* 

Maryland Department of State Planning. Wetlands in Maryland. Baltimore: i97i. 

Maryland Department of State Planning. CMetzgar, Roy G. , Comp.) Catalog of 
Natural Areas in Maryland . Baltimore: 1968. 

Maryland Department of State Planning, Regional and Local Division. Directory 
of Maryland Planning Agencies . Baltimore: 197i^. 

Maryland Department of State Planning and Urban Research and Development Cor- 
poration. Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation and Open Space Plan . 
Baltimore: 1972. 

Maryland Geological Survey. (Franz, Richard and Dennis Silfer, comp.) Caves 
of Maryland (Educational Series 3) . Baltimore: 1971. 

Maryland Herpetological Society. Cooper, John E. Endangered Amphibians and 
Reptiles of Maryland . Baltimore: 1973. 

Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission. Prince George's County 
Planning Office. Natural Features Influencing Development . 
Riverdale, Maryland: 1970. 

Maryland Scenic Beauty Commission. Interim Report to the Governor and 
Legislature . Annapolis: 1966. 

Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Natural Features of the 
Washington Metropolitan Area. Washington, D.C. : 1968 

National Park Service. Waggoner, Gary S. "Eastern Deciduous Forest Theme 
Study", The Eastern Deciduous Forest . Washington, D.C: 1972. 

Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas. Jenkins, Dr. Dale W. Survey of the 

Ecologically Significant Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region. 
Washington, D.C, unpublished. 

The Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas. Proceedings of the Workshop on 
Environmental Inventories . Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian 
Institution, 1973. 

State i'lanning Office. Keifer, David R. Kishore Mithaiwala, and Theodore L. 
Mercer, Jr. Preliminary Comprehensive Development Plan . Dover, 
Delaware: 1967. 



28 



The Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, The Flan for Lake Tahoe . South Lake 
Tahoe, California: The Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, States 
of California and Nevada, 1971. 

U. S. Department of the Interior. Potential Natural Landmarks . Washington, 
D. C, unpublished. 

U. S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Leopold, Juna B. 
(juantative Comparison of Some Aesthetic Factors Among Rivers . 
Geological Survey Circular 620 . Washington, D.C.: 1969. 

U. S. Department of the Interior and National Bureau of Sport Fisheries. 
Threatened Wildlife of the United States . Washington, D.C. : 
National Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; 1973. 

U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Draft-Master Plan 
for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal . Washington, D.C. : National 
Park Service, National Capital Parks, unpublished. 

U. S. Department of the Interior, Natural Landmarks Division. Natural Region 
Studies . Washington, D.C: U. S. Department of the Interior, 
unpublished. 

Urban Regional Development Center. Gosselink, James G. , Eugene P. Odum and 
R. M. Pope. The Value of the Tidal Marsh-Work Paper No. 3. 
Gainesville, Florida: 1973. 

Vermont Agency of Environmental Conservation. Vermont Adopted Interim Land 
Capability Plan. Montpelier: State of Vermont, '.1972. 

Virginia Division of State Planning and Community Affairs. Critical Environ- 
mental Areas . Richmond: 1972. 

Virginia Division of State Planning and Community Affairs. Preliminary 
Report on Critical Environmental Areas . Richmond: 1972. 

Water Resources Research Institute. Herbst, John R. and Edgar L. Michalson, 
eds. A Wild Rivera Symposium . Moscow, Idaho: 1969, 



29 



APPENDIX A 

Natural Features Library List 

Interpretation Guide 



This appendix has been prepared as a guide for use in inter- 
preting the computer library list of Natural features. Each 
site as referenced by a seven digit site identifier and two 
lines of text. The guide is keyed (alphabetically) to the 
printout format which appears at the top of the next page. 



Appendix A 



Printout Format; 







(OS 






(A) 

;iTE I.D. 
WJOCYZZ 


(B) 
SITE NAME 


I i 


(E) 

Ark A 
((VCRE^ 


(P) 
LOCATION 






|uo^>p| -»jc;- ANf^ Rll'i IMT 

FN irjJTPASH OMMDED HFR- 

Description (G) 



(G) 
DESCRIPTION 

l/GREENBRTER LMS T ! 



(A) Site I.D. 



W = County Number 
XX = Election District 
Y = Source 
ZZ = Site Number 



W County Naone 

01 Allegany 

02 Ajinc Arundel 

03 Baltimore 

04 Baltimore City 

05 Calvert 

06 Caroline 

07 Carroll 

08 Cecil 

09 Charles 

10 Dorchester 

11 Frederick 
13 Garrett 



W County Name 

13 Harford 

14 Howard 

15 Kent 

16 Montgomery 

17 Prince George's 

18 Queen Anne's 

19 St. Mary's 

20 Somerset 

21 Talbot 

22 Washington 

23 Wicomico 

24 Worcester 



XX Election Districts - Vary by County 
Y Source - Source Numbering Sub-System Comprehensive 

0.= Open Space Plan II , D.S.P. publication now 1972. 

1.= Catalogue of Natural Areas in Maryland D.S.P. publication 

August 1968. 
2.= Bibliographic Reference; D.S.P. reference card file of sites 

obtained from search of any available publications on related 

topics. 
3.= Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas - Survey of the 

Ecologically Important Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay 

Reg i on . 
4.= Envi rorimf n t. .< 1 Invritory Questionnaire's D.S.P. pjamphlet 

July J 97 J. 
5.= Personal Interviews. 
6.= Other Sources. 

7.= Any combination of the above. 
8.* Any single tree of interest or importance - the majority 

obtairi<''J from Thi- T'. 1 g Tiit- Cli.tmpions of M.iryl.trid 197"i 

Maryland Forest Service - UNR. 



31 



Appendix A, con't 



9,= Eagle nest, osprey nest, oir heronry obtained from any of 
the above sources or indicator of an area "proposed for 
consideration as a Wildland" by D.N.R. 



ZZ 



Site Number 



(B) Site Name. 

(C) "Type" Codes ; 



1. 


Wcf l.-viiM 




24. 


Ro'^rvcM r Wnti-rshcti 


17. 


2. 


Canal 




25. 


Wooded Watershed 


48. 


3. 


Sprinq 




26. 


Woodland Meadow 


49. 


4. 


Waterfalls 




27. 


Virgin Forest 


SO. 


5. 


Dam Site 




28. 


Virgin Oak Pine Forest 


51. 


6. 


Recharcip Area 




29. 


Mature Forest 


52. 


7. 


Mudflats 




30. 


Tree 


S3. 


e. 


Moss Bog 




31. 


Marsh. Nat'l. Champion Tree 


54. 


9. 


Lake 




32. 


Scenic Woods 


55. 


10. 


Pone 




33. 


Virginia Bluebell Area 


56. 


11. 


Wooded Pond 




34. 


Vegetation at Limit of Range 


57. 


12. 


Breeding Pond 




35. 


Wooded Bluff 


58. 


13. 


Mill Pond 




36. 


Mountain 


59. 


14. 


Pond and Historic Grist Mill 


37. 


Mountain Gorge 


60. 


15. 


Brackish Estuary 




38. 


Scenic Overlook 


61. 


16. 


Fresh H2O Marsh 




39. 


Cliffs 


62. 


17. 


Salt H2O Marsh 




40. 


Cave 


63. 


18. 


Fresh and Salt H2O 


Marshes 


41. 


Mountain Plateau 


64. 


19. 


Swamp 




42. 


Ravine 


65. 


20. 


Fresh H2O Swamp 




43. 


Valley 


66. 


21. 


Swamp Forest 




44. 


Pastoral Valley 


67. 


22. 


Hardwood Shoreline 


Area 


45. 


River Valley 


68. 


23. 


Wooded Area 




46. 


Marsh and Stream Valley 


69. 



Kw.-i V.i I !<-y l'..r.it. 

Geologic Area/Site 

Serffont inc Barrens 

Archeo logical Area/Site 

Historic Area/Site 

Scenic Area 

Unique Vegetation 

Unique Ecological Area 

Natural Area 

Wildlife Area 

Wildlife Sanctuary 

Wildlife Demonstration Area 

Waterfowl Area 

Wildlife Management Area 

Relict Community 

Rare Animal 

Rare Plant 

Agricultural Area 

Peninsula 

Island 

Trail 

Estate 

River Bed 



(D) Ownership Codes ; 



PU 


Public 


PC 


PR 


Private 


C 


LP 


Local /Public 


PQ 


SR 


State Roads Commission 


D 


SP 


State/Private 




ST 


State 


E 


CO 


Corporation 




FP 


State Dept. Forests and 
Parks 


F 


FE 


Federal 


G 


CP 


Quasi-Public 


H 


NP 


National Park Service 


CN 


PP 


Private and Public 


I 


A 


Potomac Edison Co. 


J 


B 


Under Option - U.S. Dept. 


NR 


CH 


Church 


DI 


DA 


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 


L 



Private/Corporat ion 
Chesapeake Bay Foundation 
Private/Quasi -Public 
Balto. City Dept. Recreation 

and Parks 
Private and State Dept. of 

Forests and Parks 
Private, Public, and 

Quasi-Public 
Balto. City 
Private and Federal 
County 

Private, State and Federal 
State/Federal 

Md. Dept . of Natural Resources 
U.S. Dept. of Interior 
Local 



(E) Areas in Acres 

(F) General Location - usually references county topographic maps 

(source: Maryland Geological Survey) as quadrangle maps 
(source: U.S. Geological Survey). 

(G) Site Description - Common Abbreviations 



32 



ALPHABETIC INDEX - ABBREVIATIONS 



AA - Anne Arundel 

Arche - Archaeological 

Amph - amphibians 

A- - .Area 

Amp - Amphitheater 

ALT - Alternate 



GORG - Gorge 
GN, GRN - Green 
GOVT - Government 
GEOL - Geological 
GUNP - Gunpowder 
GEN - General 



B BDG - Bridge 

Betw, Btw - between 

BWI - Baltimore, Washington, International 

Balto. - Baltimore 

BORS, BDR - border (s) 

BW Parkway - Baltimore Washington Parkway 

BLKW - Blackwater 

BTM - Bottom 

BLVD - Boulevard 

B&O - Baltimore and Ohio 

C CTRL - Central 

C - Circa, Century (after #) 

CBF - Chesapeake Bay Foundation 

CHR, CH - Church 

CN, CO, CNTY - County 

CR, CK - Creek 

CTR - Center 

CUMB - Cumberland 

CHES - Chesapeake 

CORNR - Corner 

CRLL - Carroll 

GEM - Cemetary 

CONSERV - Conservation 

CARO - Caroline 

CHK - Choptank 

Circum - Circumference 

Conwgo - Conowago 

C&O - Chesapeake and Ohio 

CHR - Charles 

D DEC - Degrees 

DORC, DORCH - Dorchester 
DEMO - Demonstration 
Dcpt - Department 
Dev - Development 

E E - East 

ESE - East Southeast 
Ex - Example 
Exwy - Expressway 
ENE - East Northeast 
ENVIR - Environment 
EST - Establish 
ESP - especially 
ELEM - elementary 
ELV - elevation 

F FNDN - Foundation 
Ft - Foot, Feet 
FRED - Frederick 
FED - FedtTAi 
PLWY - Fl yv»ay 
PPM - Fftrm 



H HWY - Highway 

HIST - Historic, History 
HGTS - Heights 

I ISL - Island 

INT, INTCN - Intersection 

INST - Institution 

IMP - Importance 

IND - Indian 

INTERP - Interpret 

INT - Interior (Department of) 



J JCT 



Junction 



L LTL - Little 
LWR - Lower 
LTD - Limited 
LNDG - Landing 
LGE, LG - Large 
LMST - Limestone 
LA - Lake 
LANDMK - Landmark 

M MD - Maryland 
M, MI - Miles 
MIN - Minutes 
MT, MTS - Mountain(s) 
METRO - Metropolitan 
MRSH - Marsh 
ML - Mill 

N NNE - North northeast 
N - North 
NW - Northwest 
NNW - North Northwest 
NC - Nature Conservancy 
NALT - Natural 
NATL - National 
NLC - Natural Landmark Classification 

O OCC - Occupants 

P PG - Prince George's 
PND - Pond 
PT - Point 

PREHIST, PREHIS - Prehistoric 
PRESVN, PRESV - Preservation 
PENN - Pennsylvania 
PRT - Part 
PRK - Park 

PATUX, PTX - Patuxont 
PIS - Piscataway 
PANA - P.inoramic 



33 



Alphabetic Index - Abbreviations con't 



Q QA. - Queen Anne's 

R RD - Road 
RDG - Ridge 
RES - . Research 
RTE, RT - Route 
RIVR, RI - River 
RESV - Reservoir 
RR - Railroad 
RECM - Recominend 

S Shr - Shore 
S - South 
SE - Southeast 
SW - Southwest 
SSE - South Southeast 
SSW - South Southwest 
ST - Street 
SP - Species 
ST, STE - State 
SS - Southside 
SECT - Section 
SI - Smithsonian Institute 
SANC - Sanctuary 
SUS, SUSQ - Susquehanna 
SHELTR - Shelter 
SIG - Significant 
SPR - Spring 



•T TAL - Talbot 
TER - Terrace 

U U.S. (#) - U.S. Route number 
U.S. - United States 

V VA - Virginia 
VILL - Village 
VAL, V - Valley 
VEG - Vegetation 

WW- West 

WVa - West Virginia 

W/ - With 

WDLF - Wildlife 

WMA - Wildlife Management Area 

WNW - West Northwest 

WSW - West Southwest 

WASHI - Washington 

WICOM - Wicomico 

WORCST - Worcester 

WSHD - Watershed 

XYZ 



34 



APPENDIX B 

NATURAL FEATURES INVENTORY LIST 

ALLEG.ANY COUNTY 

0104181 CHESAPEAKE S OHIO CANAL 02ND UU75AL0MG POTOMAC R TVE'^/SE'^MENT OF C "S 
CANAL FROM WASH TO CUMBERLAND (STUCTURE « ROUTE MOSTLY INTACT i HISTOR TC IMP 

0105702 CUMBERLAND NARROWS 37LP 320N.V-CUMR-RT i*0 1 . 5MI/ ANT ICLINE FORMAT- 
lONIJUNXATA AND TUSCARORA FORMATIONS 

0107703 DAN'S MOUNTAIN 36PD1QO0 GSW-IOMI OF CUMB /AB(JNnANT WILOLI'^'EJ. 

OAK» HICKORY»MAPLE»RFFCH» BIRCH TRHFS (PART OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

013318t f^REEN RDR&TOWN HILL MTS 55P"13600N tMI-PAW PAW W VA /SCENIC OAK-HICKf^'-<' 
FOREST* SCHEDULED TO EXPAND f^REf^N RIDGE STATE PARK 

0107105 PINTO GEOLOGIC SECTION i+BPR bSSW 1 . 7MI-CRFSAPTWN/ GEOLOGIC EXPOSURE 
OF DEVONIAN AND SILURIAN FORMATIONS t FOS^ IL BEAPI^IG 

0116106 P0TO\'AC BLUE SPRING 03NP IISSE 3. 6M I-CUMRFRLNn/Pf-RT OF CfiO CANAL 
NATIONAL MONUMENT (POSSIBLE SUPPLEMENTAL WATER SUP'^LY FOR CUMBERLAND 

0101075 SCENIC OVERLOOK - RT UO 38PU 2AL0NG RT40 E-CNTY /IS^RESSIVE PANORA- 
MIC VIEW 

0103201 DEVILS DEN CAVE '♦OPR 5N-WARM SPRING RD /CAVE IN TONOLOWAY 
LIMESTONE FORMATION 

0103202 MiiRLEY BRANCH SPRING 03PR 5N 39DEG39MIN/W78-37/ ABOVE BASE OF 
TONOLOWAY LIMESTONE FORMATIONIIO TO 15 FEET WIDE 

0103203 TWIG S CAVE '♦OPR 5N 39DEG38min/W7R-37/ AHOVE RASE OF 
GRAY TO HLACK CRYSTALLINE L IMESTONE ISTRE AM THROUGH CAVE 

0103206 ATHEYS CAVE i+OPR bN 39DEG39M IN/''J78-3b/nEVFL0PFn ALONG 

SETS VERTICAL JOINTS IN TONOLOWAY FORMAT ION I BLUE-BLACK LT'^ESTONE STRATUM 
0122207 DEVILS HOLE CAVE i+OPR 5N 30DEG30MTn/ W78-3R/Fr)PMED IN K' ipfp 

LIMESTONE (VERTICAL SHAFT 30 FEET DE~d 
0105208 GREISES CAVE itOPR 5W SIDE SHRIVER RD6 /AlONG SERIFS OF 

PROMINENT JOINTS IN TONOLOWAY LIMESTONE FORMAT ION ! -/ATFR .•■'TTHT'^I CAVF 
011620O HORSE CAVE UOPR 5N 39DEG37MIN/ •/78-39/Smai.LO ■/ CAVr :n 

FAVOSITES 70NE OF KEYSER LMSTINATURAL BRIDGE INS IDE !ST AL ATT ITES IN "EAR 

0121210 ROCKY GAP CAVE UOPR 5S RIM ROCKY GAP GORG/ ',(. ONG VERTICAL 
JOINTS IN TUSCARO^'A SANDSTONE IFLAT CEILING THROUGHOUT 

0121211 STEG'-'AIER ORCHARD CAVES 400° 5w c■La^JK IROUS MT /l.Ti CAVFS T^l '"OOD- 
LANOINIC^ DISPLAY OF HELICTITFS» STALACTITES* AND A=GONTTr CRYSTALS 

0103212 JEiF.U. CAVES 40PR 5E .5Ml-orviL HOLE /13 LfaDS DEVFLOPED 

TO''OLOWAy LIMESTONEICAVE CRICKETS IN FISSURE 
010';213 ALI.EGANY HGH SCHO'^L CAVEi+OPR bS SIDE WILLS CREEK /?0 <^F T CoA^'L-iAY 
OlOSaii* BOWMANS AnniTION CAVE '40PR 50UARRY. VALLEY RD /E SIDE OF RDI 

3b FT CHIMNEY 

0129215 CUMBERLAND HONE CAVE '♦OCO bN 39DEGU1 MTig/w75-U7/HFMAINS OF NOW 
EXTINCT SPECIES HAVE RE"^ N FOUND THE°f 

0129216 CUMBERLAND QUAR'Y CAVE '♦OdR 5S SIDE WILIS CRF'K /SERIES OF CLOSELY 
FOLDED ANTICLINES AND SYNCLTNES LOCATED HERE 

0129217 DRESSMAN CAVE '♦OPR bOUARi'Y WCASH V ALLEY/S^ALI SKYLIGHT 
OCCURS IN CEILINGIFLOWSTONE DEVELOPED Iij PLACES 

0105218 GOAT CAVE "tOPR 5END PATTERSON ST /T^O LONG LOW PASS- 
AGES OCUR ALOrjG BEDDING PLANES 

0105219 HAYSTACK MOUNTAIN CAVE '♦OPR 5S SIDE WILLS CRETK /COLLAPSE OF SAND- 
STONE fl^DS CREATED SHELTER CAVE 

0105220 LOVERS LEAP CAVE '♦OPR bf| SIDE WIL'S CRE~K /FISSURE IN T'ISCAR- 
OPA SANOSTO'IEISIG'IS OF BEING WATERWORUIMO FORMATIONS PRESENT 

0129221 SAVAGE RD QUARRY CAVE '♦OPP 5AL0NG JENNINGS RUN /TWO CAVES ICOAL AND 

SPELEOTHEMS PRESENT 

0105222 VALLEY RO QUARI'Y CAVE '♦OPR 5W SIDE SHRIVER RDG /T'-ZO SMAL' CRA'U. 'AY 

01072?3 FORT MILt. FIS'.URE CAVES '♦OA 5N END FORT HILi /TH-TEE C AVES lUAR^O •/ 

PAS AGFS WITH SEVERE VERTICAL SLOPING WALLS* ENCRUSTED W1T« rOS;iLS 

01072^'^ "HOnrS cave '♦OPR 5E us 220IS-"A.VLINGS/KNTRANrE rACM F'JD 

0107225 MARION PRENIS INDIAN VILbOPR bSW-CRESAPTOWN /rvlDFNCE OF C 

AD lonn-i'.o'i occuPATioNJARTiFArrs fouud 

01^'?26 SMA-KMC OLD FIELOS VIL bOH lOF-OLOTOwN /StTf OF MAJO= LAtr 

17T>»-EARtY IPTH C VILLAGE I MANY ARTIPACTS HUT NO SYSTEMATIC EXCAVATIONS 
0ir/',?77 SCENIC OVrOLC-'K 3flSR '♦7tl OF RT36 ISr-RT22n / ''O OEM FOREGt^OUND 

01?v;'.-'« CUMMEOLAHn scenic area 36SR HbaS-PT'fO-noAD OCK RD /fAVES» STEEP SLOPES 

Af»")NOANT WILOLIPE 
0133'»60 RANMEOS OVERLOOK 3flST 2 INT THOMASflST AP'-ORD/ A^EA CLOSE TO 

FLY*AYS FOP MIGPATION OF SONGHIROS AflD RAVENS 
013:?««32 »«MITE SULPMJR SPRINGS 03ST 2nGRFFN RDG ST FO«EST/FOIlR SPRINGS PLOW 

1H*n*IGH SLATE «<0CKISUR' OUNOEO MY WO-^DEO APEA 



35 



Allegany County con't 



0103461 WARM SPRINGS 03ST 60WARM SPRING RD /SPRINGS BETWE'^N 

TOWN CREFK RD AND MURLEY5 RP ANCH I FAVOR TTE PICrilC AREA 

OlSJi+a? GREEN RIDGE LOG ROLL 51PR lOOW-GREFN RIDGE RD /SITE OF HISTORIC 

LOG ROLl.JPANORAMIC view 
0107429 DANS ROCK 48C0 IW-MIDLAND 2MT /ELEVATION 2895 FT 

0104439 SHALE BARRENS 48PR 179GRN ROG FORESTt CUMR/N OF FLlNTSTONE* 

SW DOLLY RDI3MI OF OLDTOWN» S OF MILL CREEK»N OLD DOCK TRAIL 
0103439 SHALE RAR' ENS " 4ePR 244NW 3MI OF OLDTOWN /DEVONIAN SHALE 



ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 



'0205101 ANGELS ROG 8 FRESH POND 34PR 30FSF- JACOBSV ILLE 3MT/FVrFLI FNT SITE AC 

ORDING TO SMITHSONIAN REPORT IPOS^ TRLE RARE ANIMAL SPEC TE"^ f'^oHAGMI IM ROG 
0204182 RLUEFiELI, MEADOW ISLAND 33PR 2PRIEST RRIDGE /WILOFLOWER COVF="^n 
0205703 RADKIN POINT 16PR 50ESE-GLEN Ri IRNIE > RAY/2 Ml waTERFPONt -i/ 

SOME CYPRESS KNEES » EXCELLENT BIRD HABIT AT I IMPORT ANT TO CHFc;aPEAKE RAY F'ln'i 
0205104 CORCORAN TRACT 2HFP 3RENE- ANNAPOL IS 5. 5M I/COMS IDEPFQ i_ac;t 

TRACT VIRGIN TIMRER IN TIDEWATER MDJ2ACRE RAMrio GROVE ! WTLnLTFF drfsE^'VE 
0203105 ELEVATION WHITE ROCKS 48PR 2SE GLEN BIJRNIE 3.5M/0'il_Y UPLAND OUT- 
CROP OF RARITAN IN MD COASTAL PLAIN ( ROULDERS PURE FOR GLA^^'". SAND 
0206106 HOCK TRACT 55SR 15NNW- ANN AP0LI5 /AREA DESCRIBED AS 

WEEMS CREEK LIVING SCIENCE MUSEUM ( OUTSTANDING AREA FOR ECOLOGICAL STUDIES 
0207708 MAYO POINT 26PR 80S- AN APOLIS 4.3VI /AJ?FA MATURE HARD- 

WOODS AND SALT MEADOWS (OVERWINTERING SWAN OCCUR HERE>HIGH EROSION 
0204709 ROUND RAY BOG 08PR 1 1 ONW- ANUAPOLIS 6MI /WIDE VARIETY BIRD 

LIFEJCRANRERRY, HOLLY. MAGNOLIA FOUND 
0201710 SEVERN RIVER HEADWATER 23SP 900W- ANNAPOLIS SMI /SEVERN RUN IN A^^t^i 
0207781 LYONS CREEK VALLEY 21PR 2674AL0NG LYOtJS CRE^K /DUCK, MINK. HA'vK 
0207706 IVY NECK/JAVA FARM 54PR 389SSW AN^IAPOLIS /apFA SERVES AS 

SITE FOR RESEARCH OF ESTUAR INE ENVIRONMENT RY SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
0204711 SOUTH RIVER HEADWATERS 16PR 3563W- ANUAPOL IS 5MI /MARSHES CONTAIM 

HARDWOODS. CLAMSf CRABS. DUCK (SCENIC WEST SHORE 
0207712 BEARDS CREEK 16PR 369AL0NG READDS CRFTK /TYPHA SP.C^AR^, 

CLAMS FOUNDfCRF AND SMITHSONIAN INST. BELIEVF ARFA SHOULD RF opFSFovrn 
0204704 FLAT CRE' K 16PR 29''AL0NG Fl AT CRE''K /WILDLIFE HARTTAt 

BORDERED ON MW BY RTb0/301.ON SE BY RIVA RD 
0207705 MUDDY CRE^K 17PR Hn7R0TH SIDES '-'UDnY cR/NATUdE cr)Ki^FQ\/ 1.' f- 

CY CONSIDERS THIS IMPORTANT ARE A I W ILDLIFF HABITAT 
0207206 CALVERT FORMATIO'I 03PR ION FND CALVRT CLIFi^S/F A IRMAVEN nlATO"-'- 

ACEOUS EARTH MEMRERI55 FT THICK 
020546Q ROYD POND lOPR ItSN-RAYSTDE RFACH oPi /ONF OF FF'i Fof<^m 

WATER PONDS IN MARYLAND 
02044R2PATUXENT WILDLIFE RES CTR55DI 6bOALONG AA-PG RORDER 

0205207 OLD MARGARETS CHURCH 50PR 2W-INTCN OF RT3 8231/ ARCMEOLOGI C AL SITE 
0204208 SEVFRN FOREST-MARTIN PNDllPR 140NEAR MARTINS POND /MUCH NATURAL v/FG"- 

TATION ON THIS AREA ON SEVERNIGRFAT WHITE OAK AND KILN tJFAR POND 
0205301 GIRSON ISLAND 16PC 120S END MT RD /NATURE CONSERVA'ICY 

FEFILS THIS IS IMPORTANT WETLANDS (PART MAINTAINED AS BIRD SANCTUARY 
0204302 BREWER POND lOPR 33C)SE-HELFNA ISL 1 MI /SHORELINE SUR n. :>,in 

-ED RY IRREGULAR WETLANDS ( MATURE HARDWOODS AND OVERWINTERING SWAN FOUND 
020520^1 PODICKORY ARCHE SITE 50PR 5NW SANDY PT ST P ARK/ ARrHFOL^G IC AL STtf 

0205210 BELLFIELD 50PR 5S-RT50/30 1 ( SK ID^^ORE/COLO'I T AL FAR'-'^TFn 
ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE 

0205211 BRICK KILN 50PR S-RT 50/301 1 "J /roLONTAL Tum iqr^ r 

ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE S7 „ ic-t ^-n'>Y ROG /SMORFS MOSTLY U"T 

n?n54T5 MEPt^OITH CRF K 56PR 57JUST S- ( n Y ^ ><-, ~1,.^^ 

OJOe^ofJoP^R-pSir""' '"'■'"iZ, 130N R.« S RI.E-«T 2 /MNOEVELOPEO PO.r^T 
0206303 POPLAR I U IN I RTIW-GLFRE BAY /ARCHEOLOGICAL SUE 

Sfof3S^ 'cSlTlT.r tr.l 9rs li::^-t'^T /UNDEVELOPED AREA( 



36 



Anne Arundel County con't 



IRREGULAR SHORELINE PROVIDES NESTING AREA FOR OSPREY 
0.206305 HARNESS CREEK 29PR 90N SHORE-SS RT /PRIMARILY WETLANDS 

EAGLE NEST LOCATED HERE 
020721'* INDIAN MOUNO 50PR 5SE-G0VERN0RS BDG 3M/ INDIAN MOUNDS AND 

JOHN BELTS QUAKER MEETING HOU5E-16Q0 
02071*85 -PATUXENT MARSH ■ 16PC lOOON BORDER GOVERNOR RDG/t INIQUE , AREA 

0207215 WOODSTOCK 50PR 5S-RT255 » W-RTt68 /WILLIAM PENN SIGNA 
-TURE ON DISPLAY 

0207216 CHALK POINT 50PR 5N END CHALK PT RD / ARCHEOLOGIC AL SITE 
0207307 DE- ° COVE CRECK 17PR 3'*QNEAR CAPE NANE /NATURE CONSERVANC^ 

CONSIDERS THIS AN IMPORTANT AREAJMUCH WILOLT'^E 

0207217 HERINGEN 50PR 5NEAR RT423 /SITE PREDATFS 1670 
0207U83 LYONS CR JUG BAY MARSH 16PR UUOOIMI N-WAYSONS CORNR/MtlCH MARSH VFGATA- 

TIONIGOOD FOR RAIL Hi INTIMG > WILD R ICE' MALLOWf PHR AGNITES PRFDOMTNATE 

020'*2'+l PREHIS IND VILLAGE SITE 50PR i+NW-DAV inSONVILLE /DISTINCTTVF ARTI- 
FACTS FOUNDIDATES RTW AD 300-600 (BEING RUINED BY FILL-REMOVAL OPERATIONS 

0205240 MARTINS PREHIS IND CAMP 50PR INW- ANNAPOLIS /VERY IMP ARFi TO 
'CULTURAL INDIAN HISTORY OF MD!2U LAYERS CULTURAL DFBRTS FOUND SO Fflc? 

0203308 GAYLUSSACIA RRACHYSERA 5i+PR 5N-o AS AnFNA. 3MI I SI 77/Q ARF dLANT CONSID- 
ERED WCrWTY-PROTECTinN BY NATURE CONSERVANCY IPOSS IRLY OLnJ^ST LIVING PLANT 

0201309 HELOMTAS RULLATA StST bl.IMITS BWI AIRPORT /RARE HERB WORTHY 
OF PRESERVATION 

BALTIMORE COUNTY 

0308101 BATSMAN RIJN VALI.EY 25PQ 8bOW-COCKFYSV TL' E 3 Ml/ONF OF F^w rfmaTN- 

ING COMPLEXES WITHIN URBANIZING AREA (USED FOR ^FOMORPHOLOGIC AL RFSFARrM 
0313182 BALTI'^ORE HIGHLANDS 160 260SSW-RALTO CITY /50 ACRE LAGO"N 

SERVES AS WATERFLOWL SANCTUARY (SHALLOW MARSHiWILLOW STANnS 
0303103 RARE HIL' S U8PP 400W- JONES FALLS EXWY /SERPENTINE ROCl' 

BARRENSJSTREAMS INHABITED BY RED SALAMANDER AND dICKERFL FROGS 
0315705 HART AMD MILLER ISLANDS 66(5P 157S-POOLFS ISL /ONLY MAJOR hmSdoII. 

ED AND UNRESTRICTED ISL IN UP'~'ER RAY I IMP STOP-^ING AREA FOR MIGRATORY RT = nc; 
031^8106 HAYFIELDS U4PR i*7tMMW-RALT0 CITY 8 MT/HISTOR ICAL VAI'iE! 

PIONEER FARM IN DEVELOPMENT HEREFORD CATTLE IN US 
030Q107 LIMEKILN HOLLOW UUPR 700N"E BALTO CITY 3. SM/' .ARnLE UNDERLAT^I 

VALLEY CONTAINS SOME MOST ATTRACTIVE DAIRY FARMS IN MARYLAND 
0310708 LWR LTL GUNPOWDR FALLS VU5E l'»97BALT0-HARF CNTY Bn»/TinAL MARSH ARF" 

IMP RY CRF AND NATURE CONSERVANCY ! COVERED HOIDGE PRFS'^NT ! HARDWOOD GROVES 
0311109 LONG '■-.RE^M CREEK VALLEY a6E 9nOFNE-TOWSON I W-manoR /SCENIC VALLEY! 

RY TOWSON ANTICLINEJSTREAM EMPTIES INTO GUNPOWOFR FALLS 
03ni'81 PATAPSCO GORGE U2FP 1500DART daTAdsCO RI V /RFTW ELLICOTT riTV 

« «(0CDST0CKIVARIETY of hardwoods (CONSIDERABLE MEANDERS 
0309111 SHEPPARO PRATT FOREST 23PR 7bM-RALT0 CITY 1.5 m:/S0MF OF OLDFST OAK 

IN AREA ON GROUNDS SHEPi^ARD PRAT: HOSPITAL (ROLL TNG TER-'AIN 
0302112 SOLDIERS DELIGHT i49SP 2076SSW REISTERSTOWN bM/i iNi is^ 'AL METRO 

AREA (UNDERLAIN WITH SERPENTINE ROCK(WILD FLOR A ( FREQUENT OUTCROPi' INGS 
0308113 WESTERN RUN VALLEY 46PR 250nsw BUTLER 3 MI /AREA OF GEOMOPHOLO 

-GICAL RESEARCH BY JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVFRS ITY ( AT IR ACT IVE VALLEY 
030371'* GRNSPRI'IG-WORTHINGTON V U3PR b71bN"W BALTO CITY 6 ^^I/ROLLING VALLEY IN 

AGRICULTUOAL USE(SOME FINE HORSE FARMS (EXTENS IVE ESTATES (VAR TFO WILDLIFE 
OMMtlXU fiRHSPTIG-WOOTHINGTON V U 3PR '*710Nri'( RALTO CITY 6 NT/SAME AS 03n371M 
n3(l».2ni REAVFR :jiIM c;hFLTER UQPR bN RANK flEAVFR RU^I /SMAL" ARFA l-'/ ?()' 

PAS'. AGE LFADIMG TO RO' M 10» 01 AMETER ( CL A Y PI'F « CHAR'Fn MOrjFS FOUND 
n.yiu?n^ MELTOr(S shelter '*0ST bAI LOCH RAVEN RESV /SMALL FIS-URE CAV! 

AMOVE OUAB lED PARKING LOT AT LARGF DAM 
nVI?Oni* LIHERTV PES'"MVOTR ?bST 3b07HALTO-CRL' CNTY ROR/FXTFrJSI Vi ! i 

AREA* MANY SMALL STREAMS INTERLACE ARrA(HEAVILY FOR' FST^D ( Mi (CM WiLDLIFi- 
030hOHb PRETTYROV RESV V/ATFRSMrD2SST 86'lbNw CORNFR-RAI TO CO /fXTENSIVE NATURAL 

AHEA(MIXEO FOREST WITH VARIED WILDL IFE (HEADWATERS FOR GUNPOWDFR o TVER 
031h70'' CAR"OLL ISLAND 6'iFE 8b'.UP:'ER W SHORE-CHES /ARPA CLOS'n TO BUR 

-LICCUCH AREA IS TIDAL MARSH (PRFHIST I'lD VIL FOU'ID ( EUV IROIIME'IT ST > .■ AREA 
0311710 GUNPOWDER DELTA 16PR 270NUW CARROL' ISLA'ID /AT COMFL ' ' ''• "-THE 

GUNPOWDER RJ « SALTPETER CRICHF « NC CONSIDER THIS Imp AREAM.O/ ' ' '•; 



37 



Baltimore County con't 



0.^1fj7?7 HLATK MAKSM 1 7Pt< 71f>SF; 'irCT ItALTO CITY /CO^'JS inrRCt) PRIMF 

WETLAND Al*FA fiY Cllf--, IJC fi SI 
0311230 KNIRHT PPFHIST TI^D SITF! h)OPR lONW-ESSFX /C 30008C TO IbOOAO 

MUCH UNDISTIJRF1ED DEPOSITS OF ARTIFACTS REMAIN 
0302402 HORSEHFAD WOODS 5bF 50nS-MCDONOGH RQ /W-F»EISTERSTOWN RD 

WITHIN DEVELOPEO SECT CNTY I ENDANGERED WILOFLOWERS FOUNDIIVia RIRD-ING AREA 
0311'+23 PUTTY HILL NATURAL AREA 53Pra 256ME PARKVILI F /WHITE MARSH RUN 

AREA I INCLUDES ALL TYPES PIEDMONT HAR IT ATS ! DT VE^S IT Y OF L4Mn=;C APES )Mi ICH v/fg 
031't')23 PUTTY HILL NATURAL AREA 5bPQ 34NE PARKVIL'.E /SAME AS 031_U23 
0302U16 FERDINAND C LET dR0PE'=TY2QPR 160N-LIRERTY =0 /nNTDUCMFn A^FA FOP 

OVER ion YRS fSURUOUNHED RY URBAN COM' HJM IT Y i DENSE GRmiMO COVFR 
0301'+15 CATONSVILLEJRALTO TRAIL 67QP lORTll+U E/LOUDIN CEM /WOOnS » STREAMS ► AND 

SYLVAN GLADESICITI7ENS TRYING TO PRESERVE AREA FOR HIKING 8 NATURE STUDY 
0301'*8a PATAPSCO RIVER MARSH 16PR 701+RTl W TO RW-PKWY /STRUGGLING NATURAL 

AREA ENDANGERED RY URRAN DEVELOPMENT I LEAST RITTERN fquNG HERE 
0309417 WHITE PINE WOODS 32PR 5E OLD HARFORD RD /S- INT-SUMMTT AVE! • 

IDEAL HAVEN FOR SMALL WILDLIFE AMD RIRDS 
0309U60 LAKE ROLAND-RE LE-" PARK 56G 250S-RUXTON E-FALLS RD/mam-MADF RESV NOT 

MAINTAINEDJEROSION PRODUCED EXTENSIVE DEI TA AT N FNDIRARE WILDLIFE t^OUNn 
0306250 RLACK ESTATE 52ST 2.?WSIDE Ifi3 N-DATRY R/ Dftor P| AN'^Fn USF 

AS HWY REST AREAIREMATNING AREA TO RF MAINTAINED AS NATUDAL SCENIC AREA 
0307251 KAUFMAN PROPERTY 52ST 23E SIDF TR3 /N-STARLFRS CH. Rn; 

IS A SCENIC AREA i MEADOWS ;SMALL GAME 
0311450 HARTLINE ET AL PROPERTY 5'jPR 4'ipATTERS0N S HYDFS RD/DTVERS TTY/FNV TR i 

SPECIES RARE ORCHIDS > '.■/OODEO OPENf R SWAMPY AREAS EXIST 

BALTIMORE CITY 

0402101 CYLRUPN PARK 57G 1 74CYLRURNft GNSPRN'^ AVE/WO 'DED RTon SAUrj 

NATURE STUDY PROGRAMS CONDUCTED HERF ; rjURSER Y FOR FLO^A PLANTi^D OTHER ^A-i<c. 
0407102 GWYrr S FALI..S VALLEY 46PP 3500NW OUT-RALTO CITY /V WINDS 15 MI c;ir 

FROM NEAR SOLDIERS DFLIGHT TO DOWNTOWN BALTO CITY ."i l^lMSl I AL ^LAnITS Pm inih 
0407403 SETON INSTITUTE 32PR 50' W-i-.'ARASH AVESF-RT 26/FVTENSIVF r,|ATU--)AL 

AREA BEYOND HOSP IT AL ! POWDFRMILL RUN PAS'^ES THROUGH ! s^OWL ORSERVED Hi^=E 
0407410 LEAKI^I-GWYN S FAL' S PARK55G 120f;w RALTO CITY /nppooTFD TO "F TMr 

ONLY NATURAL CITY PAOK IN MAT ION ; NUMEROUS SPRIt|GSI?00 YR OLD OAK G^^OVFS 
0415410 LEAKIM-RWYN''S FALIS PARK55G 1200W RALTO CITY /SAMF AS 04071^10 
042(4204 BALTIMORE PLAS . WORkS 50OP 2N-KFY HWY /STTF FIRST r-.\ AC,r 

FACTORY IN BALTIMORE! 



CALVERT COUNTY 



0503710 FISHING CRE K 17PR fl7HS^,W-CHFS REACH 1 "^ r/S 1 t CHF, Mr rONSinPR 

THIS PRIME WETLANDS ARE AS ( OTTER » WOOD DUCK.EAGLFS FO: lUn 
0503312 DEEP LANDING 16PR 20l)SW HUNTINGTON 2.5MT/DRATNS INTO ^^^ny~ 

ENT RI (CITED AS PRIME WrTL AND BY SI (VARIETY WILDLIFE AND WATERFOWL 
0501703 HELI.EN CR HEMLOCK dre;SV 53QP H] mnW- APi 'FAL IMI /CITED AS PR IMF NAT 

URAL AREA RY S I» NCt CriF ! SOUTHERti-MOST STANDS HEMLOCK HERE(RARE WDLF PRrSFUT 
0501316 COVE DOINT 77PR 300E-RERTHA 2MI /ONLY HABITAT IN mq 

0F-NAR;0'V MOUTH FROG (EAGLES NEST S PHRAGMITES FOUND (ST SITES IT P^P ARE* 
0503407 CAMP MOHAWK 5bPR <35SSE-LWR MARLBORO 2M/HARITAT LOCATION 

FOR W ARBITERS. RD RLACK R A ILS ( END ANGERFD GRE'N TPF:-" F=OG FOLIND IN MARSHLAND 
0503712 HAL' CR CONSRVATIOU ARFAU6PR 1235S-DUNK IRK 1.5MT /'MOSTLY I |i lO'^V^LO"'"^ D 

STREAM N ON E SHORE PATUXENT RI(MUCM WDLF i^OUND(SITE FOd ^•0'^ISFPV pdoR^'A'/ 
0501310 JACK "AY 46DR 410F SHORE PATUXFNT RI/nOTFD IMD /FTLA'n 

BY SI ( INVALUARLE I INK IN FOOn CHAIN - AOUATTC FOOSY^TFM ; r^) AB « LAOVA"^ A^^^A 
0501001 DRUN' f^niNT I TnnT'-'OM':;r 21H lOnsF TI" CALVFRT r^|TY/DPMM POI^IT no'jn 'I 

OF LIGIITUOUSE(DIVERSITY OF WILDLIFE 
0501215 ST MARYS FORMATIO^I U8PR 40S-COVE PT 1.5 ^<T /GEOLOGIC OUTOROt' 

CONTAINlr.'G FOSSILS (DEPTH FOSSIL ROCK OVER 150' (IMP TO PALEONTOLOGISTS 
0501701 RATTLE CR CYPRESS SWAMP 34QP 2flns-PRINCE FRED 4 MI /REGISTERED NATL 

LANDMARK (BALD CYPRES^- ST AND ! V AR lETY AMPH ( S I» NC» CRF RECOMf^'END ITS PRESVN 
0502701 RATILE CR CYPRES", SWAMP 34QP 42r-'S-PR INCE FRED 4 MI /SAME AS 0501701 



38 



Calvert County con 't 



0S03.5fl3 PAT'lXtriT 9 TVFR MARSHFS 1 6PR Ub'iQUfI CALVFRT C'irY /UNIOME AREA tf^tO'^^ 

-ASSIMG R^AVFL PITS « MARSHES ALOMf; F RANk PATUXFIJT RIVE" 
0501702 CALVERT CLIFFS U8PR ?60w SHORE CHFS 15MI /EVC^LLFNT FOS^-IL 

STUDY ARFAIFOSSILS RATE TO MIOCENE t^POCH ; SI » 'JC» CBF RECOWFMn PRESFRVATTQN 
0'50270? CALVERT CLIEPS itSPR 200w SHORF CHFS 15 MI /SAMF AS 0501702 

0503702. CALVERT CLIFFS i|8PR 7bW SHORE CHES 15 MI /SAMF AS- 0501 702 ' 

0502311 KITT POINT 17PR lOOS-AOELINE 1 MI /WITHIN PATUXFN'T RI 

WATERSHEDIOSPREY»OTTER»MIMK»CRAnS IMP TO AREA I S I » NC» CBF RECOVEND dRFS"! 
0502706 PARKER CRE^K 16PR 10 lOSE-PR INCF FREO 2. 2M/0NE-M0ST SCENIC 

STREAM VALLEYS IN MDfTYPHA SPECIES PRFQOMIMAT'-" ; i |\JSP0 ILED GEOLOGY iT^p ^y ST 
0501706 PARKER CREEK 16PR 4^2SE-PRINCF FRED 2.2M/SAMF AS 0502706 

CAROLINE COUNTY 

06020U3 CHQPTANK CONSERVATION A 

060U320 RER'-Y RUN/RELL CREHK 1 6PR 29^>RELl. CR NE/GANEY RO/PRIME WETLAfJO a'ITH 

-IN CHQPTANK WATERSHED i OTTER rSHAD» BAS'^f TYPHA S^.SCIRP'iS SP'^ POUND HERE 
0608005 GILPIN PT LTD USE AREA 
0603''21 CHOPTANK RI-LYFORD LAN0G21PR 531FR0M WILLISTON N /ROTH SIDES il°PE=' 

CHOPTANK RI iOSPREY. OTTERt NESTING WO'iO OUCKrMANY FISH SPFCIFS OC'IPY .-^REi 
0606321 CHOPTANK RI-LYFORD LANDG21PR 860FR0M WILLISTON N 
OeOUSlfi SKELETON CREEK 16PR 3onrg-CH0PT ANK RI /PRIME '.'JETLA'ID i°EA 

HARITAT FOR TYPHA. OSPREY. OTTER» V AR lETY OF PISH 
060'*3HQ HUNTING CREEK 16PR 758BDR DORCH-CARO CNTY/CONT I ANS TYdm/\ ^&, 

OSPRFYrHAWKrS WOOD DUCK 
0603102 WILI ISTON LAKE OQQP HONi 'F-HARMONY 4.2 MX /S^AO^^ELY SilRO'l'JD- 

ED BY .VOODLAND I ABUNDANT RLUEGILL5» CR APdTE» BASS» PERCH 
0603101 MILl CRETK HEMLOCK STAND3UPR ISSE-DEMTON U.3 MI /nc-wtOCK FAR F -. <; 

OF THEIR RANGE IN MDiRFMAIMI'lG AREA MOSTl Y .vOODFO tJ'VAMP 
0601'»76 UP-FR CHOPTANK MARSHES 16PR 21 1'^E-GOLOSRORO l.SMT /■■-\Ton HARTTAT 
0602'* 76 UP FR CHOPTANK MARSHES 16PR 8QSE-G0LnSRn=0 1.5MT / 

060'*'.75 TAHYARD MARSHES 1 6PR 153NW-PRFST0'1 U.5MI /FXTFrgc;jvE MARS-ES 

WHERE HEROtlrRAILf SNIPE CAN RE SFr.N FROM RT 331 
0601007 MUD MTLI POND 1 1 PR 24E-HFNDFRSO'| 1 v^ /nuF-FEW RFMATV.G 

MAJOR PONDS IN MOIOAK. GUM SHAS"" C ATF ISH» RLUEGTLLS FOUND 
060270P GARLAND LAKE 1 1 PR bONF-PFNTO'l 30MT » M31 7/S' ig oi IMDFH nv " : ^ , 

PIME» ABUNDANT FISH AND FAUNA 
06050'"- IDYI.VILO WDLF DFMO AREA 5« 1523rriF FED^R ALSRUdG 

060U782 CHO°TANK RIVER MARSH b6 768W-M0ST TI^ CARD CO /opt^f '•'FTI. A'-n 

APFASFNDAMGrOFO npLMARVA FOX SOUIR 'El. ' OSPOEY. OT 'ER FO'INn;-ir rONISTOFRc, t • ■-- 
0604710 LIMCHESTFR POND lUPR 24SE-PREST0Np ' IF-RT3:;i/0LnrqT rO'ITT"i'V S 

BUSINESS EST IN USiSCENIC wn ■ DED AREA I ARUNOA' IT PTKF» CR AP - TFt R AS^ 
06067MU TUCKAHOE CREEK SHORE 31SP 2368CHK RI N/ROL^H LNDG/FVTFMS I VF •^n^^~- 

ABEAJVARIETY WDLFItJATL CHAMPION SWAMP WHITE OAK FOUND HFRFSCTRC'IM ?!.'• 
0601085 MASON RRriCH-LG MARSH DIT5'>PR 16H3CAR0 - QA CNTY RD° /F/TFrjSIVE H "■ ^ T 
-FUL STREAM VIONE OF FEW UNSPOILED STREAMS I DIVERS ITY FI.OOA H FAUNA co i"- 



CAKROLL COUNTY 



07072)3 ARGO CAVE uOPR 5S-WESTM INSTFR /OUAR'Y IN "Ak-r- 

FIF| VAR'«Lr HOUSE'. FUTRANCESIWAL '^ OF CAVF P ITT rn I ] S' I.Of IG l<i "■/TDF 
070721U /rsrvlMsrru CAVF UOpR bS-z/ESTMlUSTF" /pfiPMFD I^l '.'.1"- 

«='I':i.n MAMMLE ) FLOORED WITH CONCRETE ) FORMERLY USED AS mjlk CO' LER 
n70'(? -n BTPO HTU. NATURAL A^EA 5'iST 78F-RT07» S-RT32 /VARIED MATU'JM 

ATA TNCL'inrs '■.TPFAM V» V/0"OL/^ND» HTl I S I VFG INCLUDES SCAOLET CUP Fi lUGUS 
mimOHU LriT&TY wrS' tfVOI" 2SST ]M7')MALT0-C''LI CNTY HOP/F/TENSI V-" NAT r- .[, 

ARFAISTRFAMS IMIERLACE FORESTED APf AS 
07O',OMU LIMFMTV rM S' RVOIR 25ST itOdCnALTO-fRl I CflTY BDR/SAMf AS 070'i0J'i" 

07t»Mn! MACMMAMS VAL' FY 6UPR M20''f I'lE-WESTM Jt r,TKR 5MI/M0DFL RUi'AL I. AM" 

SCAPEKrf^AnuAL SLOPE TO Sw 
0707102 MORGAN nun VALIFY 'I'.PR '>76S-WESTMrMSTl'ii 6"! /MEAUTTFmi ' i, nro 

STE'PLT HrtNKF.OIOAK»HICKORY PRFOOMIMATF 
070^10? MORGAN RUN VAM EY 116PR 'iHS-WESTMIUSTF" »iMI 

07060*^3 PREnvnOY RESERVOIR 2!jST (,'. 



39 



CECIL COUNTY 



Ofl07231 PRTNCIPIO CRFFK 16PR 1 1 bf^-PFRR YVILI.F: IMI /ASSORTED 8 UNUSUAL 

WILDLIFE. COMSIDFIRED IMPORTANT BY SMITHSONIAU INSTITUTION 
0fl0b231 PRINCIPIO CREI K 1 6PR 8SE-PER'<YVTLI F IMI /SAME AS OB07231 

0H0123? CABIN JOHN CREFK MARSHFS16PR 71 'INW-E ARLV ILLE IMI /PART ELK oj WATER- 
SHED I ABUNDANT WDLFIHERONRY OF 150 NFSTISI RFPORTS AREA WORTHY OF PRESV 
0805234' RED POl'lT 21PR 270MOUTH NE R I /MOSTLY ^W/IN RODNEY 

SCOUT RESERVATIONIjABUNDANT SWAMP LIFEtSI»NC CONCERNED ABOUT ITS PPESV 
Oa01236 SCOTCH^iAN CREf'K 16PR U64NF FARLVIU.E 2MI /PART C" DAM ED TO 

FORM PONOIREST PRIME WETLANDS I MUCH NATURAL FLORA « FAUNASSI CONSTDERES IMP 
OeOHtlO SUSQUEHAN A RIVFo BASIN U3PR 1 40nN-CONOWINGO HAM /Ri ir;r,Fn S cnRF'^.T^nt 

HUNTERS EfiDANGERING W ILDLIFE MJNCONFIRMEn EAGLE SITINGc; 
0802235 ELK RIVER 16PR llOSW-ELKTON IMI /NCr"^! CONSIDER TT 

WORTHY OF PROTECTIONiSWAMP SPARROW NESTS HERF'SCTRPUS S TYdha ENDANGERED 
0803235 ELK RIVER 16PR 13RfJSW-ELKT0N IMI /SAME AS 0802^35 

0805235 ELK RIVER 16PR llOSW-ELKTON IMI /SAME AS 0802235 

0807'+01 PERRY POINT 56PU 44S-PERRYVILLE 1 MI /WDLF WAR' ANTS AQFA 

PR0TECTI0N;PERRYVILLE MUST DEVELOP TRACT OR REVERT IT TO FED GOVT 
0001237 PEARCE CREEK 16FE 4373N' !W-EARLV ILLE 3MI /PRESENTLY VMAfDEPT 

PLANNING WISHES TO MERGE PEARCEf PONDr CABIN JOHN CR INTO ONE PRESV AREA 
0808107 PRINCIPIO f^URNACE 50PR 5ENE-PERR YV ILLE 3MT /REMA INS- IRON WORKS 

DATING BACK TO 17151 IRON USED FOR REVOLUTIONARY WAR SUO'^LIES 
080518HSUSOUEHAN"!A FLATS 07ST1 1 546SE-HAVRE DEGRACF 3M/I'^P FEFni\iG A^EA 

FOR FISH & WATERFOWDSHALLOW BODY WATER FOR SI?E!MC»5I CITE AS PR T^'E AREA 
0807188 SUSQUEHANNA FLATS 07ST SIM-SE-HAVRE DEGRACE 3VSAME AS n80518>' 
0805101 BULL MT WILDERNESS AREA 32QP 182SSW-N0RTHWEST 7MT /BE-XH MAPLE FOREST 

WELL E OF NORMAL RANGE 
0808182 CONOWINGO BARRENS 48PQ 2780W-RTSING SUN 7MI /UNDERLAIN '/ SE==p- 

ENTINE PERIDOTITE PEROXENITE ROCK (UNPROnUCT IVE SOILSSTUNTED OAK 
0807283 GAR'^ETT ISLAND 6riPR 175N-HAVRE DE GRACE 1 . b/COM^oSED-GR AN ITE i 

LITTLE EROSIONiHARDWO'iD FOREST » CONS IDEPFD IMP BY SI « NCILARGEST ici_ TN RI 
0806106 OCTORARO CREF'K VALLEY UftPR 678WNW-R IS ING SUN 3bMI/0AK HTCKO^V POR^ST 

SHAO MIGRATE HEREiLWR PORTION ENDANGERED BY ENCROACHING DEVEL0P»'1I=:NT 
0808106 OCTORAOn CRE~K VALIEY 46P0 1«2WNW RISING SMU 35MI SAME flS 0«'^6in6 
0802402 TOWN POINT 55PR 60N' W-HACK PT 1.5 Mj /K'jron pqT' I ,;= Y t T-'P 

NURSERY GROUND FOR SALT WATER SPECIES! GREAT BLUE HERON COLONY 
0807208 CONWGO PREHIST IND SITE 50OP 4NW-P0RT DEPOSIT /HATES C 3nO"Br TO 

1500AD MANY ARTIFACTS FOUND ! REMA INTUG DFPOSTTS WARRANT SITE Pfr<^7N 
0801233 POND CREFK 16PR q38W-F,>RLVII l E 5MT / 7C»CBF CONc;inFD<^ 

IMP TO POP'SERVEfSPECIES SCTRPUS AND SCARCE WTLDI T^E SUCH aS OT"^ro r^c-c,p 

0803211 BIG ELK CRE'"K WOODS 55ST 75N t-ELKTOM 2mT /roRF=;Trn A°'^ai 
SMALi STREAMS (DIVERSITY- ANIMAL HABITATS IN SWAMP RFfijON 

0803212 LAUREL RUN WOODS 5bST 18S-RT Q5 W- RT 5ub /NATURAL •■in^nFn 
AREA BEAUTIFUL LAUREL RUN PLA'^l'ipn SCFNir HIGHWAY 

0808213 CONOWINGO NATURAL AREA 5bST 12W-RT 222 /WOODED WILDLAND 

LOWLAND HARWOODSJSOIL IS VERY SANDY 

0807714 SUSQUEHANNA OVERLO' K 38ST 30RT ^SJE BANK SUSO R/WOnQFO AND ROCKY 
LANDISCENIC OVERLOOK-SUSQUEHANUA RIVER 

0808r.22 RICHARDS OAK 53PU lE-CONWGO DAM 1.5MI /HISTORIC TRE CAMP 

SITE-LAFAYETTES ARMY IN 1791 

080120q GREAR PREHIS INO VIL' AGE50FE 5NW-CECILT0N /ARTIFACTS INDICA- 
TIVE OF PREHIST VILLAGE- ABOUT AD 1 OOf'- 1500 (POTENT I AL FOR NEW TNFOD'-' AT TON 

0803710 ELKTON NATURAL AREA bbST 68NF-FLKT0N 2MI /S ITE-OLDE'^T PEN 
CENTRAL RAU.ROAD TRACKS! STONE MRTOGF OF SCENIC INTEREST 



CHARLES COUNTY 



0905321 PER'-Y FWANCH 1 7PR loQW-TOMPKlNSVIM F IMT/SWA'/nv at^A ooo-af, 

_E;5 habitat for MTNKiOTTER OSPREY ANADROMOHS FTSH!FAGIFq AND '^1 ■•.TS 
090b32;^ DOIJ_Y MOARMANS CRi^FK 1 7PR 210SE-MT VTCTORTA 1 75m/c;dart T^l A PATrMq 

DISTTCHLTS ^P AND JIJNCUS ROEMFRIANUS* BAS''» OSPREY FOUND HFRE 

0905323 LLOYD CRE^K 17PR 40NW-BANKS ODE^" RD /RICH pLA"T AND 
ANIMAL LIFEiSI AND NC CONSIDER THIS AREA OF CRITICAL IMPORTANirr 

0905324 PICCOWAVfCN CREFK 17PR 240WSW-MT VERNON 2 MI /THE ST •■ . C CON- 
SIDER THIS AN IMPORTANT WETLAND AREA 



40 



Charles County con't 



0901325 CHAPEL POINT 32PR 70CHAPEL PT RD AND 30/HARWOOD FORESTEO: 

THE SI AND NC CONSIDER IMP NATURAL AREA 
090770fl MARSH ISLAND 16PR 30N- MAT i AWOMAN CRf^- K/SC IRPUS SPP CAN RE 

FOUND HERE THE SI AND NC CONSIOER THIS A PRIMARY WETLANDS AREA 
0905320 SWAN PT NECKIWISE '-lARSH 1 7PR 11+H7S-CI ICKOLO CPE'K /TlflAL MARSH VITH 

SPARTINA CYNOSUROIDESISI ArJD NC CONSIDER THIS A PRIME NATURAL AREA 
0903709 NANJEMOY CREEK _ 16PR 2bOilNE TO HILL TOP /TYPHA SP MINK WO^n 

DUCK ARE POUND HFREITHF SI AND NC CONSIDER THIS A CRITICAL NATURAL A^EA 
0903004 DONCASTER STATE FORFST '5V-ST 150 NW-ROWIF RD /'INCHANGFD NATURAL 

AREA WITH A NOTARLF DIVERSITY OF NATURAL FEATURES 
0907703 MATl AWOMAN CREEK ( LOWER ) ^(SST ttOOON-RT Z'^'=> /NESTING WOOD ''lUCK 

F0UNDISI» NCfPOTOMAC TASK FORCE CONSIDER IMPIUNUSUAL FAUNA HABITAT 
0906289 MATTAWOMAN CREEK UP°ER b'lPR 1690CHARLES-PR CN RHR /SWAMP FOREST AND 

HARWOODS QUFRCUS CARVA;W00n DUCK SI AND NC CONSIDER doTMF NATURAL AQFA 
090510"+ NEW8ERG TALROT TERRACE USPR 60i!S^F-NEWRrR G 2mt /sm/\RP xmcrF A<^F-60 » 

SCARP elevation;rare clifp like area formfo during pi ftstocfmf arf 

0903101 GRAYTON TALROT TERRACE uflPR HOOESF-GR AYTON 1.7mt /c;ha3D tncdf asf-UO • 

IN SCARP ELEVATIONIFORMEO DURING Pl.F TSTOCENi^: AGE 
0903702 MARYLAND POINT 5'SPR P70ns-,W- IND HEAD luvj /hfa'.'TIY F0OF<;TFr,! 

SI'NCf POTO'^AC TASK FORCE CO'ISIDER AREA IN ME^'D OF P^E^l^^-'' AT ION 
0904705 ZEKIAH SWAMP 2nPP 7500F-LA PLATA 4MI /\"-.^ MARDi'iO-m APFa; 

ARCHEOLOGICAL SITEJMilCH WDLFiVTRGIN TIMRERISI»NC CITf /\c; jm=> CTTTrAl. ARFA 
0908705 ZEKIAH Swamp 20PR 7bOnE-LA PLATA 4MI /Si^'F AS 0°047'l'^; 

PLUS MOST IMP PHASE WDLF PRfrc^vt) « RECREATIONAL DFVFLOPVFi |T TN S "H Adfa 
0905706 POPES CR « GEOL SECTION 48PP 2B0E TO ELLFNHORO M TL ! ./'-'T "^H TTHAL "-lAi^SHi 

EXPOSURE LATE TERTI AR Y (5I» INC CONSIDERS IMP NATURAL .l^Ei 
0901707 POPT TORAC^O 50PR ISOSW^LA PLATA 2Mr /HJ'^TOR ir AL SIG'-iTcrx 

-CANCEISI»NC CONSIDER IMP NATURAL AREA 
0«»0«»713 GILBERT SWAMP 1 6PR 902E-ZFKIAH SWAMP /E^TCEPT lONAL APFA 

FOR MIGRATORY RIRDSJSI.INC CITE AS IMP NATURAL AREA 
0902711 CEDAR POINT ufCK 17H 4QO0W-NAUJFMOY CR /HtPnWOODS I '","EC T'="S 

INC SPARTINA PATENSfDOSTICHLIS SP(SI»NC CO^ISIOFPS CRITICAL 'IATUdaL aqf.', 
0903718 •••ALLOVS RAY MRSH. MQ NECK55PR 60nnN FROM SMITH PT /SH.'.IJ 0>") COVFS Don- 

VIDF HARITAT FOR ANADROMnuS FISH iF AGLE» OS^RFY COM'Orj 
091071b CHICA'^UXEN CRE^K 16H 670S RDR CUICAMUXfru RD/COUT A T-IS Tydma S3. 

SCIPPUS SP''. MINK. OT ^V^» EAGLE' CPARS» FISH 
0<'07'»53 POMONKEY CRE'"K 5SPR UbOrj PRT CN AT poTOMAC/V T = G TK| foofST'-.. 

MARSMESITMP TO WDL^lSLNC CITES AS IMP AREA RUT TH^jpATEMFO BY DFVEI. OD'^r : iT 
0<»0b230 PO'^FS CR TND SHEL" MID.NbOP" lOS-LA PI.ATA /'-'tes C 10 "r ri 

MOnflDiONE OF LGE « flFST PRFSV OF OfSTFR SHt^l 1 S DFOOSITFn ^Y d^ifhtST T'n 
0902326 RURGES- CRF K 16PR 7H/;N-N AU.JEMOY CR /hz-^jitAT LO^'-TTOU 

FOR TYPHA SP.MTNKIEAGLE NEST FOUNDlSI»NC COrJSTDEP !'■■= '!-.T"da|. aRFA 
090327'7 THORN GUT MARSH 16PR IflOLWR THOMAS PT f v-Sru/O' .r or c;frv/r3A| 

MARSHES WITHIN POTOMAC RIVER WATERSHED CONSIDERED T ■■"■> •'-'Y SI « Mr 



DORCHESTER COUNTY 



1015317 RLINK HORN CRE K 1 7PR 600UPnER CHOPTANK RT /HABITAT FOP OSPRFY 

« TAXODIUM niSTTCHUMJCITFD PRIME WETLANDS HY SI»NC<C«F 
1011218 HOINSFIEun IND VIL SITE 50PP 2SW-VIEN A /LATE PRFHISI SITEl 

POTENTIAL FQO YiriDTMG luniAN LIFE INFOPMAI ION I GO D COtriTIO'*! 
10"1316 LOWER MARSHYHOPE CRE K 21DR 20i|5FROM NA"TTrOKE =1 /mt-;h RATING "S I^is 

NATUPAL APfA TO CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION BY SI (VARIED TLDM'^F 
)0153fl0 >»IMTIilG CRFi-K lOPW 7SHSW TO BLADES RQ /TYPHA PREDOMINATES 

CITFO TMD fiATUPAL AREA BY SI»NC»CBF 
inil3iu OOIMT 110 PT.PrMKNTFr PT \inn p^iiw-RAflK MAMTTCOKr Q\/i, vapsh ARE'S TUC 

"EOFTN c»r' KiroNsinroro pi'imf ••/rrLAfios by si. 'iccb"^! r-'i^ ■■•"iL=^ habitats 

1003314 POINT NO PT»PrHK'IIFE PT 1 7PW '1 1 »>"/ BANK NAUTKOKF -JT/SA-.M AS 1011 '^14 
lO'ii^lS CHTCONE CP'BIG CR MAKSH W.PW 1 »M <^NF-VIENUa 1 TO ^ Ml/rjrrn AS noiMr n t 

-LAND ARF.AITYPHA PINUSr rHAMAEC YPAI' TS Tt4Y0I DFSf Al NUS ''APniMA FOU'in UEPr 
1002701 EAST IIEW MABKT BASIN OftPP 3itOS-RT3"^' F-'lEW mapkfiT/ I ■■'O AS ^ .'.TrviMENT 

AREA FOR RAINFALL « FOR RFCHARGPJG UNUEPGI'OUND WATFO SOUBC'-'S I ?('0 •niAMrTrW 
1014702 MIGGINS POND lOPR 1 70SE-CAMBIMDGE Vmj /sup O Ium- ;iy <:;hAL 

-LOW FRESM water MARSHinANGER-r)ESPOTLMEMTIST»NC»rRP CITE AS ,0" r.. '_•; .t-^VN 



41 



Dorchester County eon't 



1003703 LE tOMPTE BRYANT REFUGE b7ST i+BSSW-V IFNMA 3MI /RERIGE FOR ENDANG- 
ERED DELMARVA FOX SQ^JIRREL WHICH NEEDS THIS HARDWOOO-SOFTWOnn FOREST HARIT 
1011705 SAVANflAh LAKE lOPR 1300SSW VIENNA 9.5MI /LISTED AS CRITICAL 

NATURAL AREA RY SI (HABITAT FOR TERR AP IN» NUTR I A» OTTER ' PR IME WETLAND AREA 
1005312 HILL HOOK MARSH 17PR 3970Fi SHORE HONRA RI /IMP COMMERCIAL 

SHELLFISH AREAISI»NC»C8F CITE THIS AS CRITICAU fO CHES RAY ECOSYSTEM 
1.013313 GREEN BRIAR SWAMP 21PR 4600SSE-BLKW REFUGE 8MI/N0W BEING DRAINED 

8CLEARED ALTHOUGH -CITED VITAL TO CHES ECOSYSTEM I DELMARVA FOlf SOUTRREL HFRF 
1002209 BLINK HORN NATURAL AREA bbST 14N-E NEW MARKET 5MT /WELL WOODED BUFFER 

ZONEISMALL STREAMS ENHANCE VALUE AS WDLF HABITAT AREA 
1007411 GRAYS MARSH 16CN 250W/IN CAMBRIDGE riTY/RTCH TN FXNPTSH « 

SHELLFISHSPROPOSALS FQR DEVELOPMENT OVER' IDOEN BY LOCAL RES lOENTS I SCFNTC 
1004704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHESl 8SP22436S-CAMBR IDGE 10 MI /IMP OVERWINTER TUG 
FE?:DING 6R0UNDS-WATERF0WLIMICR0 ORGANISMS IMP CHES BAY LIFE PRODUCED HERf^ 
1016704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHES18PR 4160S-C AMBR IDGE 10 MI /SAME AS 1004704 
1009704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARS^-iESieH S-CAMRRIDGE 10 MI /SAME AS 1004704 
1013704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHES18H S-CAMBRIDGE 10 Ml /SAME AS 1004704 
1017704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHESISPR S-CAMBRIDGE 10 MI /SAME AS 1004704 
1010704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHESISPR R480S-C AMBR IDGE 10 MI /SAME AS 1004704 
1018704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHES18SP S-CAMBRIDGE 10 mj /SAME AS 1004704 
1011704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHES18T S-CAMRRIDGE 10 MI /SAME AS 1004701^ 
1005704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHES18H S-CAMBRIDGE 10 MI /SAMP AS 1004704 
1006704 LWR DORC COASTAL MARSHES18PR S-CAMBRTOGE 10 MI /SAMF AS 1004704 
1004007 TAYLOR ISL WMA 56ST 934SF SMITHVTLLE 3-5MT/RARF RASTRODHOYNF 

CAROLINENSIS HEREIMD HERPFTOLOGIC AL SOCIETY RFCOWEND PRFSVN 
1005008 BLACKWATER REFUGE 56FE bb04S-C AMBR TDGE 10 ^-^T /VARIETY PLORA « ■ 
FAUNA (NOTED AS WINTERING REFUGE FOR BIRDS tOCCUP lES PART LWR DORCH MARCupc, 
1009008 BLACKWATER REFUGE 56FE 2970S-C AMBR IDGE 10 "«'T /SAME AS lOOSO.i" 
1013008 BLACKWATER REFUGE 56FE 7872S-C AMRR IDGE 10 MI /SAMP AS lOf'SOiW 
101]0;8 BLACKWATER '-^EFUGE 56FE 2842S-C AMRR IDGE 10 ^I /SAMF AS lOo-^OOH 

FREDERICK COUNTY 

1107405 LILYPONS lOPR 105SE- ADAMSTOWN 2.75 /MTLIMPKINS CAN RF 

FOUNDJCOM-v^ERCIAL GOLD AND TROPICAL FISH BREroING PONDS 

1115701 CATOCTIN MT NATIONAL PRK55FE 240UW-THURMONT 2 MI /OAK HICKORY FO°FST 
ABUNDANT WILDLIFE ,,^,„, 

1110701 CATOCTIN MT NATIONAL PRKb5FE 332BW-THURMONT 2 MI /SAME AS n:!5701 

11^0702 CUN-IUGHAM FALLS ST PARK55ST 614W-THURM0NT ? MI /UNUSUAL FLOPA AMD 
MUCH WILDLIFEIOAK HICKORY FOREST 

1115702 CUNMIl-IGHAM FALLS ST PARKbbST 3Q62W-THURM0NT 2 MI /SAME AS 111070? 
112070? CUNUINRHAM FALI S ST PARK5bST 7B7W-THURMONT 2 MT /SAMF AS 11 '070? 
1103004 HIGH NOB bbST 5GAMRRILL STATF P apk/N^ARLY 1600< HIGH 
1126603 BIG^.S FORD IND VIL SITE 50PR lOW-W ALKFRSV TLLF /TWO VILLAGES I r AMos 

BETWEEN lOno-200 BC AND 1000-1500 AD WELI- PRFSVfMORF TO BE LEARNED HFop 

1126403 FOUNTAIN ROCK SPRING 03CO 3S-W ALKE^SV TLI F /LARGEST MATURAI SP 
-RING IN FRED COUNTY JUNIOUE AREA SHOULD RE PRESERVED 

1103404 RENO MONiJMENT 48PR 60W-BOLTVAR 1.5 MT /UNUSUAL GEOL FORM- 

ATION AND OAK HICKORY FOREST ) APPLACHI AN TRAIL BISECTS AREA 

1116401 HIGHLAND FALLS 04PR 5SE-HIGHLANDS /LITTLE CATOCTIN 

CRE! K FEFDS THE FALLS 

110140? OLAUO NATURAL AREA bbPR 60W-LTLYPONS 2 MI /WILDLIFE IS PLFNT f 
-FULfWORTH PRFSVNIUPLAND PLOVFR R DICK SISSFL FOUND 

1105206 SHOEMAKFR PRFHIS VILLAGE50PR 5E-FMMITSnURG /VERY IMP APCHF "" 
CAUSE-IOC AT ION RFT'-IE^N POTOMAC-SUS RIIARTTFACTS EXISTTUG HETW 10(1'_-130 ' 

1101208 CA^JOY IND VILLAGE SITE 50NR 5SF-RRUNSWTCK /ARCHF STTh-I AST 
PISCATAWAY VTLI AGE IN MD 16°9-1712 ADIARTIFACTS FOUNU 

1116204 CAMP ECHO LAKE AREA 55ST 20RT 70 /ABUNDANCE OF FTSH 

EXCELI FNT RECREATION AREA 

1103275 MIDOLETOWN VAL OVERLOOK 38SP 18RT 40 NEAR RIDGE RD/MOST SCENIC AGRI- 
CULTURAL VALLEY TN MARYLAND " ^^^^,^,^ „^ , .wo-7^ 

1124275 .MID^LFTOW^I VAL OVERLOOK 3:?5P 14RT 40 NEAR RIDGE RO/SAME AS 1 1,^?75 

1115210 WOLF ROCK FISSURE 40PR 5W-THURM0NT l.b MI /FAULT !-'>'' ' '■ y'- 



f\' > 



'URRING SUGr-EST THE FISSURE IS ACTUALLY A F AULT I FAULT-WEVERTOU ')' i 



1 ' T 



42 



Frederick County con't 



1116211 C'\TOCTI^I NATURAL AMP 55ST 20-1 70 S-MYERSV ILLE /IMPORTANT ANIMAL 

HARITATIVARIETY OP VEGETATION 
111721'* MCKINSTRYS MILL CAVE i+OPR 5E-HANS0NV ILLE ^ Ml /LARGEST KNOWN CAVE 

IN WAKEi^IELD MARRLEiSTALACTITES F0UNn;3 ENTRANCES 
1112203 CATOCTIN CREEK meaOOWS 5bST 6bRT 3U0(CATOCTIN CR /W ILPLIFE I WOODLANDS 

FISH H WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PRESERVE PLANNED 
11031fl2 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 67PR 1 8flW ASHT-FRED CN RDR /OVER 2000 MI LONG? 

37-WHICH OCUR IN "MHlCOS'-ING 14 ST ATFS ! RECREAT ION AL VALUE 
1106182 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 67PR 51431^ ASHT-FRFD CNTY RQi'/^AVfr AS 110318? 

11121fi2 APt'ALACHJAN TRAIL 67PO ?cj3W ASHT-FREO CNTY RDR/SA^-'E AS 1103162 

1116182 AP"ALACHIA'I TRAIL 67PR 752W ASHT-FRED CNTY BHR/SAME AS 1'031H2 

1122182 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 67PR 22UWASHT-FRFD CNTY RnR/c;AVlF AS IIOSIP? 

1101286 TUSCARORA CREEK it7H 155hSE-PT-R0CKS 3 Ml /NATURAL WETLAND 

AREA IS IDEAL BIRO SANCTUARY (UNSPOILED AREA 
1107101 AMEL'JNG GLAS~W0RK5 50PR 55E-LILYP0NS IMT / ARCHEOLOGIC AL SITE 

IS BEING EXCAVATED BY S I AND CORNING GLASS CO 
1120106 FRED MUNICIPAL FOREST 32P1J bl52NW-FRED CITY 10 MI /OAK HICKOR Y ! DR AI M- 

ED BY FISHING CR;C0NTAIN5 DIRT RD AND HIKING PATHS 
1121106 FRED •■'UNICIPAL FOREST 32PU 1083NW-FRED CITY 10 mj /SAMr.AS 112010ft 

li061C6 FRED MUNICIPAL FOREST 32PU IHfiNW-FRED CITY 10 MJ /SAME AS 1120106 

111bl06 FRED M'jriiciPAL FOf'FST 32PU 2'-iONV-FRED CITY 10 MT /SAME AS 1120106 

lllblOb CATOCTIN Ft/RNACE SIPR 30S-THURMONT 3.5 MI /OLDEST IRON FURN- 

ACES IN AMERICA IREMAINI'IG WAL' » PITS' MOST EXTENSIVE SUCH RUINS TN STA^'F 
1115103 OTG Hil*lTING CR VALl EY U5*J 12t«W-THURM0NT /OUTSTANDING TOOUT 

STREAMJSCeNTC OAK. HICKORY HEMLOCK RANKS 
1)'0103 RIG M I'lTING CR VALLEY UbJ 512W-THURM0NT . /SAME AS 1115103 

llOfilCU R!)7'A = D FLATS tlPR HOOSW-THDRMONT 5.5 MJ /OAK HICKOR Y I SPEC- 

TACULAR SCENIC VIEWi-UNUSUAL VEGETATION 
112620''* MOM^'CACY P TVER CAVE 40PR 5E-HANS0NV IL' E OU'.'T /FREDFRICK LIMFSTOU 

1101201 flUCKEYSTT.VN CAVE UOPR 5W-BUCKEYST0W^^ PTKE /2 RO M CAVE AT 

BASF OF 0'JA<"'Y I CONTAINS ARGONITF FLOWERS 
1' 12711 '.-'EVrPTOM CLIFFS 3QRP bOWNW-BRUNSW ICK 30'-'I /QU ART;^ UE i SOliT-lFJJr i 

POINT OF SOilTH MOUNTAIN CHAIN IN MO 
JlOl'CJ POINT OF ROCKS 52PR 20S'"W-FRED CITY 12"! /GN mftARS.'.LT i^Y- 

POSEDJrxHIMTT 2 TIGHT OVERTURNED ANTICLINES 
1107110 SUGAOLOAF MOUNTAIN 36QP 2700SSE-FRFD CITY 10^1 /rLV-12H2 (FO'TRAJL 

IN AREA;0UARIT?TTF ROULDERS FOUNOiSCENIC AREA 

I O'^IOM MONOCACY RAT-LEFIELD blPR lOOS^E-FREO CITY 3mi /propOSFD NATL HIST 

-ORIC LANDMARK, -JULY 7»in6'» BATTLE DATE 
1125707 MXD'LFTOv'l VAI.LPY U3PR 13.^2SW-FRFD CITY Rtl /O^IE OF MOST SCEUir 

AGOICULTU=AL VAI.l EYS I'l MD I 
1103707 viiniL«"TO';N VALl EY t«3PR 1 3Hi40SW-FPED CITY Hmt /SAMF AS 1125707 

II '2707 MID l.FTO.VN VALl EY 43PR IIU73SW-FRED CITY Hm j /SAME AS 112570' 
11'670/ MID I nO.VN VAL" EY U3PP 7f)7<tSW-FRED CITY »M1 /SAME AS 1 '25707 
J 1 '0707 MTDLFTOVM VAL EY 143PR IPOSW-FRED CITY HM J /SAMF AS 1 '25707 
1' '1*707 MTD I ETOWf) VALLEY U3PR1 ' ?51^W-FRED CITY Mmj /SAMF AS l'?'->7(iV 
11? -707 MinuLETO'/N VAL' EY U3PR 7725SW-FRFD CITY HMI /SAME AS 1125707 
1100707 MID LFTO/KN VAL'EV USPR 7H7rSW-FRED CITY HMJ /SAME AS 1125707 
11 '0212 FRIENDS CREFk CAVF UOPR 5E-SABILLASVILLE IMI/NOM-SOLUT lONAL 

0»GIN nur TO LOCATION IN CATOCTIN METABASALT 
U02205 GOOvr O'lABPY CAVE 10PP bSE-FRED IMI /lb' HIGH rMJMriFY 

AT OEAu ne CAVE 
n "•202 CATOrTT"! CRE'K CAVE "OPR bENF-PFTFRSV IL' E 2MI/I()CATFD IN piREC/m- 

MPIAfl MICA <;CHT';TIP0S';IRI.E ARCHrOLfGICALSIGNIFICANCf 
nO»t?l» Cr'IT'Cv'Il.' F CAVE '•OPR hNW-LiriFPTYTOWN ?MI /NOT IOC ATE'; i^I'li 

FIELD •/0"f JwrootiTFO OCCHRING IN WAKFFK | MARBLE 
II '60? IE '.O^'E O'/AfJ-V I40PR bK»-WO"nS'tO«'l IMI /ON ISRAEL CRE Kl 

LE GOOF ONAH Y H PQrtELL CAVE JOINEO BY CAVERNOUS OPEN INC, I BOTH OF LIMESTOUC 
n0«/?07 Lt'CjANOQE SHELTER CAVE <<OPR SNUE-N( W MARKET 1.6M/N0r LOCATED IN 

PIELO WORK » REPORTED TO CONTAIN IMDIAM PICTOGHAOHS 



43 



GARRETT COUNTY 



1204007 SAVAGE RIV'R RELOW DAM Hb'iP in^HM-RT135 /SEVERAL MT WHITE- 
water ( pre-olymp ic kayak racing tr ails i sever al cavesiverv scenic 

1204008 savage rivr state f0rest5!)st53264ne gar'.'ett cmty /natural wiloernes 
tallest tre- in state here > harowood forest (few camp areas ssodrce 2 rivers 

1206226 shelter cave 40pr 3s-sang rl in ) w-oakl no/gt^eenrr ler lmst 

1206227 steep run cave topr 3s-steep riln>sang rn/fmtrance in rocky 
stream red(gre!unrrier limestone 

1206228 surveyors cave" uopr 3e- youghiogheny rivr/<^trfam flows tnto 
cave s forms smali waterfall 

120622q weaver cave uopr 3w- youghiogheny r ivo/s^p tnr^ flows into 

cave!GRE'-:nhrier lmst 
1214230 wo'')ds place cave 40pr 3n-0akland 4mi /entrance reporten- 

ly leads step like ter'? aces ic ave not located 
1201101 carey run bird s anctuar y57qp b2wnw-fr0stburg /abandoned farmj20 

acres second growth trees iseveral streams 8 springs !many rird species 
1203102 cas5elman bridge s riverbbst 15e-gr antsv ille imi /«dg is natl hist 

sitefri species include mud puppies s daudin hellbender smog built 1813 

121Q103 CHERr'iY CREEK GLADES S4PR 1715NE-DEFP CREEK LA 3M/o£AT DEPOSIT ;manY 

MAMMALIAN SPECIES HERE ) CONEMAUGH FORM - SHALES* LMST . CO AL « SANDSTO^ir 
1206103 CHER'Y CREEK GLADES 54PR 2470SinES ROCK LODGE RD/SftME AS 121^103 
1206704 CRANESVIL E SWAMP 61QP 6N-TEP=A ALTA W VA /gys AC°FS TN '■» VA! 

NATURAL ROWLOR FOREST » CERT IFIED NATU"At_ I . ANDMARK ! SOMF i ir.'TQl IF ^FIOQ A 
12082?^ MOURNING WARRLER 54PR ALONG RACKRONF MT /UNCOmv'ON •■10UR^ITUG 

WARBLER REGULARLY ORSERVED HEREJS-LOCH LYN ' HEIGHTS 3'/iI 
1214430 YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER G0RGE46PR 14720 AKLND ! FR lENDSV IL' E/30MT ALONG i' T ; 

UNSPOILED GEOLOGY. '/ILDLIFF, AQUATIC LIFE NMEOilAL'.ED TN "D; 
1206430 YOUGHIOGHENY RTVFR G0''GE46PR Q60O AKl.MO ! Fq ifmosw TL' F/q a"E AS 121'J.';30 
1202430 YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER G0RGE46PR 7680 AKLND ! FR TFMDSV/ TL' F/S A'-if AS l?lU-'.30 
1202:^41 SMOKEY SHREW 54PR 5NEAR RITTIUGFR F-4 i^b/H AR IT AT OF SOO^^V 

FUMEUS FIJMEUS UNCOMN'ON IN MD 
1206718 HOODEii MFRGAMSER b4PR 3CHERRY CREEi' GL ADES/LOPHTDYTES r: iC L' - 

ATUS RARE IN dJEDMOMT AREA FOUND HERE 
1219718 HOOOEH mfrgANSER 54PR 3CHERRY CRE^^K GLADES/same AS 120671 H 
121610b CRYSTAL SPRING 03PR bE-OAKLAND 2MI W-13b/D0URS COLD //ntfp 

INTO N END MT LA 
1.200706 FINZEL SWAMP 61QP 2bQNUW-FR0STRURG 3 ^^T /"ELTCT OF TTF AG^^ ; 

RICH IN WILDLIFESUNIQUE VEGETATION 

1214116 SWALLOW FALLS 04ST 5N-0AKLAND 6 MI /VIRGIN ST ANDS-HFv- 
LOCKiMANY CLIF-- SWALLOWS 

1214117 TOLLIVER FAL( S 04ST bN-OAKLAND 6 MI /SERIES LOW CASr»n- 
ING FALLS ON TOL IVER CRErK 

1208118 UNDERWO D RP OUAR' Y 4RPR bS-CRELI IN l.b MI /VARIETY FOSMLS: 

GREENBRIER FORM 

120611 'y UNIV OF MARYLAND RESERVEbbPU 460SW-GR ANTSV ILl E W49b/PART USED RY MD 

NATURAL RESOURCES INST 

1214120 WARI^IORS PATH 67PR 900W-OAKLAND 4 MI / IND I AN-C AMDS ALONG 

TRAILlUSEO FOR ACCES' TO HUNTING GROUNDS 

190^748 CRARTRF' CAVE 40PR 3W-SAVAGF RI DAM /LARGEST CAVE TN Mn 

EX CAVE ADAPTED ORGAN ISMS > ENDANGERED FROM INTRUDERS 

1206235 DEAD MAN CAVE 40PR 3S-SANG RUN IMJ /GREFNRRTER l.MST ) 

PART-STRUCTURE FAL! FN TNiTRASH DUMPED HFRF 

1206223 JOHN FRIEND NO. 2 CAVE 40DR 3S-FR lEUOSV TL' F 6 mt/dART OF CAVE OOFm- 

ED AFTER ROCKSLIDF TN IRcO'S 

\2\u2'ix MUD Y CfE K FALIS SHELTR40PR 3n ASE-MUD'IY CR FAL' S/TWO rAVES TN SOFT 

LIMY SANDSTONE JPOTTSVTLI E FORM 

1204?;:'b OLD SALAMANDFR CAVE 40ST 3E-CRABTREE C AVE. 2bM/ ARUf IDAMT SALAMAtl- 

DER popluation;uar-ow crawlways 

1214112 MUDiiY CRE^ K FALLS 04ST bN-OAKLAND 6.5 MI /HIGHEST WATFRFAL' 

TN STATEJSOREX OTSPAR FOUND NOWHERE ELSE TN MDJRA^^E IN US 

12041] 3 PINE SWAMP RUN GLADE 20PR 180NW-RARTON 4 MI /UNUSUAL GRASS COV- 
ERED AREA IN MIDST OF OAK-HICKORY FOREST 

1216114 SAND CAVE 40PR 3SE-0AKLAND 4.b MI /LARGEST SHELTER 

CAVE IN MDISUITED FOR HUMAN HARITAT TON ! ART TF ACTS FOUND 



44 



Garrett County con't 



laOUl'b SAVAGE RI nAM GEOL SFCT ^RFF 3SAVAGF: RT 0AM /0MTCROP"TNG "EO 
SHALE a G«AY LIMESTONE I LAST INCURSION OF SEA INTO APPALACHIAN TROUGH 



1208110 


HOYES CREST 






36SP 7731S W-OAKLAND 12MI /HIGHFST 


POINT II 


MD 


OVERLO')KING : 


5CENIC 


MTIMT ABOUNDS WITH WILDLIFE 




1216110 


HOYES CREST 






36SP tQU7S".W-0AKLAND 12MI /SAME AS 


1208110 


1210110. 


HOYES CREST 






36SP 1348S",W-0AKLAND 12MI)NE/SAMF AS 


■ 1208110 


1201110 


HOYES CREST 






36SP 1383SSW-0AKLANn 12MIiNF/SAME AS 


1208110 


1201110 


HOYES CRFST 






36SP 502aSSW-OAKLAND 12MI)ME/SAMF AS 


1208110 


121U111 


MCCULLOCHS PATH 




67PR llOOW-OAKLAND 1 MT /OLDFc;! ' 


IRAIL IN 


CNTYIORIGTNALI. Y 


RMCPALO 


TRACE HSFD RY INDIANS R SFTTI.FRS 




1206708 


FRIENDS CAVE 






UOPR 3S-FRTFNDSVTLI.F 6 MT/9FVro,i| 


f uftVRFR 



OFF PAS'-AGEWAYfFORM R ARF I POSS TRLF MINING IN DASTIOLD DATFS R tIAMFS ON '''ALL 
1214709 HAM 'EL GLADE SWAMP 20PR 360NNE-OAKL AND 6 MI /PR IMF ROG ARFA » 

BEAVER ABUNDANT 
1206010 S'.'.'ALLOW FALLS STATE PARK-^SST 180bW GAR^'ETT CNTY /C0VFO<; c;fvfpaL 

AREAS IN W GAROETT CNTY (SCENIC AREAISOME RARE ANIMAL SPECIES HFRF 
1214010 SWALLO.v FALl.S STATE PARKb'iST 5700W GAR^'ETT CNTY /SAME AS 1206010 
1201020 DE=^P CRE'K LAKE 09CO U075NE-0 AKLAND 8.5 MT /REAUTTFML ^"AN ^^ADE 

LAKEJPAVORITE RECREATIONAL AREA 
1204231 -"^YER PREHIS IND VIL SITE50PR 2SW-RL00MTNGT0N /F.VTHF'NrF OP OCCUPA 

-TIONM BY ? PREHISTORIC C )LTi IRFS I AD 10 S 1500 I ART IFACTS PO' •'■JD 
1206232 HOYF PREHIS IND VIL SITE50PR 6N-0AKLAND /SCENF OF vajOR 

LATE PRFHIST VILLAGEIlOOO-1500 ADIGRAVES 8 ARTIPACTS FOUNDJI^'O STMOY A^EA 
1200420 GORTNER 09PR 30US-OAKLAND /BEST SPOT FOR V I F •; 

-ING UPLAND PLOVER lAMISH AREA 
120340Q VOLF S.VAMP 20PR 352SE-GR ANTSVILLE 3.5M/IMO MESTING Adpa 

FOR NASHVIL'.E WARBLERS IHEAVFR PONDS EXIST 
1219234 GUN r;GHAM SWAMP 20PP 134S-RITTINGER ■.•;-RT4Q5/paRT-plEAS A'JT 

VALr EY 4H CENTER 3ICH IN VEGATATION AND ANIMALS 
120841O ROTH ROCK 4ePR 300SE-GNEGY CM 1.8 MI /EXCEL' ENT SITFr''/ 

ELV.AT 32^0'. FOR PAVPN « HAWK MI GR AT ION V lEW TNG ; 1 . 6 MI E-'^'l VA nO" 



HARFORD COUNTY 



1302104 ROCK R'J'I BIRD SANCTUARY 57PR b7NW-HAVRF OP GRACE /AN ARACIDO'IFO FAO'/ ' 
WITH HICKORY ■•/OOOSfOLD ORCHARDS' CONCEMTR AT ION OF RIRDLIPE 

1305184 SUSQiiFMANMA R TVFR RASI^I U.-^PR 1 400 CONOW INGO DAM /SAME AS IN CrriL 
130?lfth SUSO'iFHAM A RI SHORELINFhSSP 950 W RANK SUSOUFHAN' .'A/ECOLOGTC AL Af|D 

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCF 

1305185 S'ISQUFHANMA PI SHORFL INE55SP 1050 SAME AS 130218b /SAME AS 1302185 

l302iflr. suso'ifMAfr'A flats 5'jPR 2?oosus sf-havrfdfgracp/shal' ow fresh 

WATCRSIMP PENDING AREAiriTFD RY SI AS PRIME NATURAL ARFA 
130148'' LTL GUNPOWDER FALI S VAL 16PR 450MTH BIRD RT AT GUNP 
1305280 CONOvI'IGO HAR'-'ENS 1148PC 1580 ON N SHORE SUS /UMPRODi /CT T VF SOIL' 

UNDERLAIN -/ITH SERPENTINE' PP"RIDOTITF» PYROXENITF ROCK 
1307101 A'tF.onE '(-EDGEWOOn MARSH 16Fri6H40w SHORE CHFS RAY /OUTSTANDING •/INTER 

FEFD GHOUnO AND HABITAT I IMP FOR AOUIFER RECHARGE I L IMITED ACCESS IB ri. j T Y 

1304102 DE' R CREEK H VALLEY 46PR IHOONORTH HARFORD CNTY /EXHIBITS FF^-FCTS 
OF GLACIATION* INCLUDING 'LOST VALLEY' » A WILDERNESS AREA 

130310? DFr-R CRrrK a VALLEY 46PR 140nSAME AS 1304102 /SCENIC VALLFY OF 

UfJSPOILEO BEAUTY-HEAVILY WO OED (OAK-HICKORY) 
130M0? DF -T C=F'K H VALLEY 'i6PP 220(ISAME AS 1304102 

130/'l0? OF P C^f: K H VAL' FY 46PR 400SA''1E AS 1304102 

1304103 "0''K OTOGF ^^P<i bOONUW-HFL AIR'7.5 mi / INTER'^ST Tf|G 

COLI FcriO'l OF FF'»IIS BOTH AS TO NUMFIER OF SPECIES 8 GRO^THILAriD THOFftTrM-O 
130^^417 OOCKLA'IO COfAGE WOnRS 27PR 12E-0LD JOP A. s-US1/mi vfii •^rSOPHYTic 

HARDWOi'OS OF rXCFPTIO'lAL 01 / AL IT Y-OAKS' TUL IP PO''L AR, MFECH' ASI I 8 rlTCORY 
1303?:-1 ATKIMSO'I RESERVOIR 5'jCN 460E-WTLNA 1.5 '"i /w ATFRSHFn, Pu l^i- 

rrvF ARFA '/ITH FXTFNSTVE FOREST COVER ''ICH IN vRDLIFE HABITATS 
130527^" SCEMK OVFRf.O'.K 38ST 3RT1 36-MARMO'IY CH RD/ PANORAMK VJFW 

OF nrrR rpFFK STRFAM VALLEV 
13032^f> HEAVF'M.r WATERS PARK 5'»PR 253S-ALT RIl N-RTl /OLD C'lt IMT"' "Ovcs, 

AN EODESTHIAN CTR « WTLOLTFE AREA WITH UNSPOILED FOREST » STRFAV, . 



45 



Harford County con 't 

1302P32 RORFRT fi SPENCER ISLAND 1 "PR 2?7<;US Rl E-ROCK RN RD/SITE OF SWAMP 

FOREST-WARDWOODSf THE SI 8 NC CITE AS IMP NATURAL AREAS 
1301231 OTTER POINT CREEK 16PR 77bS-RTtO . E-RT21 /TTHE SI»NC & CBF 

CONSIDER THIS AN IMP NATURAL AREA 
1302726 SWAN CREEK 5^PR 650S-HAVRE DE GRACE bM/^m -DARTER ETHEOS- 

TOMA SELLARF.A RARE FISH SPECIES FOUND ONLY IN SWAN CREi^K 
130'+270 PUTNAM NAUTRL AREA 5bST 22.1 ALONG 0' CONi 'ER RD /SITE OF REATUTFiiL 

WOODED AREA TO RE INCLUDED IN E-W SCENIC HWY AT 1.3 MI N'-EC-PUTNAM 
1305??0 BROAD CR STEATITE OUARRY50PR lONW-HAVRE DE GRACE /°s*EHTSTOO IC OMAR-y 

USED BY INDIANS 200n-100iJBC RICH WITH SOAPSTONE BOWLS 8 OTHER ARTIFACTS 
13011414 KING S OUEFN SEAT USST 5R0CKS STATE PARK /IT IS A UNIQUE OUT 

-CROPPING OF ROCK EXTENDING UNSUPPORTED PROVIDING VIEW OF STREAM V BELOW 

HOWARD COUNTY 

l't02701 CAMEL'S DEN CAVE fOST 5SE 1 . 5MI-W00DST0CK /PATAPSCO RI 20 FT 

BELOW SHALLOW ROCK SHELTER IN COCKYSVILLE MARBLEIMANY ARTIFACTS FOUND 
1402102 DOUGHOREGAN MANOR 68PR 300nELLICOTT CITY 5MI W/WaGNIF ICENT MANOR 

HOUSE OF JOHN CARROLL OF C AR'^OLTON» IMP NATIONAL 8 STATE HISTORIC FIGURE 
1406103 LTTLE PATUXENT RI VALLEY46PR 500 FROM USl TO B«0 RR/M!ATURE OAK-HICKORY 

FOREST EXTENDS 1.5 MI ALONG THIS STREAM VALLEY'S RANKS 
1405704 MDOLE PATUXENT RI VALLEY46PR 4000NW-S IMPSONV ILLE 2MI/wp:LL FORESTED OAK 

HICKORY RI VALLEYrLGR TREES 8 W ILDFLOWERS' WTLDL IFE ROE~nT^!G-W INTER ING ARFf 
1402?10 HOWARD HEIGHTS TRACT 55ST 15.1S-I70»W ST JOHNS LA/fl^EA IS ONE 0^ 

SEVERAL SCENIC TRACTS ALONG I70-PIEOMOMT FOREST 8 MEADOWSSMANY HABITATS 
1401211 DORSEY ESTATE 68ST 40SW-ELKR IDGE 4MI /nf^ SCENIC AND 

HISTORIC INTERESTICN PLANS A FUTURE PARK ON A PORTION OF THE LAND 
14054B2 TRIDELPHIA LAKE 24ST 1472R0XBUR Y» HAVII, AND ML/ '-m. OUTDOOR OFCRi^A- 

TION & OPEN SPACE PLAN II-RECM CONSERVING LAND FOR MATURE-"-' ILDLIFE PITtdp 
1404i.fl2 TRIDELPHIA LAKE 24ST 384SAME AS 1405482 /ALONG HOWARD- 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY BORDER 
1406483 ROCKY GORGE RESERVOIR 24ST 640CIS':.EL FARM-PG RDR /AM ABUNDANCE OF 

WILDLIFEr DECIDIJOUS TREFS» Bl JSHES 8 WILDLIFE ARE TO BE FOUNO HERE 
1405481 ROCKY GORGE RES'^RVOIR 24ST 1280SAMF AS 1406481 /W«'RBLERS. MUSKR ATS » 

BATS' SWALLOWS' SOUIR -ELSr « HAWKS ARE FOUND HERE 



KENT COUNTY 



1506714 ST PAULS POND 13PR 102S-FAIRLEF 2.2MI /Sir»NC»8 CBF CONSI- 

DER THIS POND WORTHY OF PRESER V AT lOM-STOCKFD WITH GAME FISH 
1504712 CYPRES- BRANCH IPPR 102WS*"-CHESTERTOWN 2MT/LniCATFD T^l THE 

CHESTER RIVER WATERSHED' SIf NC» CBF RFCOMvfND THIS AREA FOR ddfSERVAT TOM 
1507712 CYPRESS RRANCH 1 QPR 54ySAMF AS 15047]2 /VADTFtY OF VFniTA- 

TION SPECIES-IN JEOPARDY OF FlJTURF DESTOUCTION 
1506713 SANDY RTM TAL TER SCARP 4ePR 6r,5S' W-F AIRLE' " 2^1 /ONI.Y REMNANT O^- 

SEA COAST THAT RAN THROUGH KENT CN SI RFCM THE PRESER V AT im^ll OF THIS <^CARt^ 
1505716 SWAN POINT-TAVERN CREFK 17PR 820S'=;W-TOLCHESTER b'^I /ST»»'ICfrRF RFCM "RE 

-SERVATIONIWIDF VARIETY OF MARSH GRAS'^ES 8 flMTMALS-OSPREY. "SWANS' GF' SF, FTr . 
1503711 HOWELI POINT 1 OPR Q60 W-^',FTTFRTONr P'^/"! /S T » MC r rnF RFC" no:r 

-SERVATIOMJSWAMP EXCFUFNT FOR AM ADROUr)! IS FTSH»^TRI°Fn n Ai^-.j "^UAD. OT TFR f "f ^ 
1506U1S DAM SITE b7PR 128M 'F-TOLCUFST'~R P.SvVRFTiw tmf RAY .^^!n 

FATRLE' CRE "K IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST BIRD BANDING Aoi^AS T'l ►•n 
150471Q MORGAN CRE!-'K 16PR 390NE-CHESTFRTOWM 2.2M/ST H.TSTs AS do Tvr 

WETLAND AREA TNC AMADROMOIIS FISH»''inon nUCKS» FTC ! f-IU'irROUt; WT1.DITFF AnoU'lD 
150271" MORGAN FRFFK 1 6PR ISpo^A'^F AS 150471" /c;w«■^MP FOR FSTS ^. 

VIARSH GRAS'-FS C^ THE GENUS TYPHA ARF PRFSFNT RAIL 8 OTTER ARE ALSO THERE 
15012;n ESTA RANCH 32PR 20N-MILL INGTON-5. 3M I /A WOODED 8 SFMI- 

F30G.NATURAI RELIEF AREA FOR WILDLIFE 8 WEARY TRAVELERS 
1501730 MASSFY « GOLTS PONDS 12PR 5KFNT CN E-RT2Q" /EASTERN TIGER SAL- 

AMANDFRrA RARE SPEC IFSr TNHAR ITS THESE PONDS! ARE IMPARATIVE FOR SURV^/AL 
1506106 REMINGTON FARMS 60PR3300WSW-CHESTERTOWN 6 ^I/STTE OF NUMERO'IS 

PLANT 8 ANIMAL EXPER IMEMT AT ION. OAK-HICKORY FORREST » FRESH MARSHES. 18 PONDS 



46 



Kent Coflnty con't 



150blO6 HfMIMr.TON PARMS 60PR 3.'.00SAMF AS lb06106 

1501 ion SHORFWOOn ESTATF bSPR P40MF-GALFNA 2MI /LOCATFO ON SWORFS 

OF THE SASSAFRAS RI.IO ACRFS-GARnrM» 7h ACRFS-OAK-GIJM WO Dt./l'Mn « Ib'-FIELOS 
1501104 MILI.IflGTON DOMD lOPR bONF-MILI. TMRTON .8MI /ONE OF FEW PONOS 

IN MD» SURROUNDEO RY OAK-GUM SW AMP I CR APP lEf HASS S RLUEGIH. GAMEFISH WITMIN 
1505105 NAPLEY GREEM/R ING^OI.O PT65PR 7bOSW-CHESTERTOWM 12MI/Fe' DING AREA FOR 

MIGRATORY WATERFOWLf ESP CANADIAN GEESE' EAGLF NEST LOCATEO XH FRESH MftRSH 
1505102 EASTERN MECK ISLAND 60PU 2' 50S-ROCK HAI.L 7 MI /V»S OEPT- INTET")" 

CONTROLS THIS MAJOR REFUGE FOR MIGRATORY WATERFOWL' MANY SALT MARSHES 
1506103 LANGCORD TAL TER SCARP 3QPR 192SSE-'^AIRLE'^ 2.5MI /AN EXAMPLE OP THE 

PLEISTOCENE AGEICLEAR EXAMPLES OF THF CLIFF'S FORMATION floF VISARLE 
1507103 LANGFORD TAL TER SCARP 3QPR 61+SAME AS 1506103 /MACK OF LAYERS OF 

CLAY'PEAT'SAND'S GRAVELUHE CLIFF SHOWS EVIDENCE OF ITS SEa FORMATION 
ISC^aiO STILLPOND PREHIS IND VIL50PR 3SW-RFTTFRT0N /ARCMp SITE WHERE 

THE PRINCIPAL OCC WAS IN LATE PREHIST TIMFS Ani3nO-160n ARTIFACTS FOUND 
1507181 CHESTER RIVER ESTUARY IbPR 3400SSW-CHESTFRTOWN 'SMJ/ST'; ESTUARY W/ VIM 

-IMAL MARSHLAND. ROROERFD RY FARMLAND-CORN R GR AIM' FF^DTNC roqi iND-w ATFRFO vl 
1501220 MILLINGTON WOODS 32PR 1 bONW-MILl.INGTON-?MX /A NJ»TMPAL EASTF^^| 

SHORE LOBLOL'.Y PIME FORREST WITH HOLLY TREES « RER'Y ri iSHES-SCFMTC nF^||TY 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY 



160B77H ROWIE MIL' OVERLOOK 38PR 1 N-RTl 1 5-1 . 25MT /O'l nn^TF mti_i r-i: 

A PANORAMA OF OPEN ROLLING MEADOWS MIXED WITH COLORPUL FA^m o ATrH'-'OR" 
160fl77O HAVILAMO'S MIL!. VISTA 3HPR IN-RRINKLOW- IM, ON PD/FvrFijFMT */Tr oc 

A RUGGED STREAM VALLEY S PATUXENT RIVER LANDSCAPE TO THE MW 
160flU23 HAVILAND MILI COM UNITY URPR 1 04NF-RR INKLOW' F-PTf-'in/SCFMIC 10 pt r^r^o-r 

W/ STE'P ROCK CLIFFS ■'.'/ NEARBY HISTORIC D'^/FLI , INf^S H duTUC-ijaw TL AMD' S ■■'Tl 
tft0177/ RUSSAPD FARM 3aPR ISW-MT 7I0N 1.5MI /m-] vmnCASTFO ' D» ■. 

OELTfiHTFUL VIEW IN AIJ DIRECT IONS. INC OPEN LAun. FARM o ATCH'-/OR'<' « PAOK't 
I^IOUS ROCKWO'iD GIRL SCOUT rftMP5TQP 'J3S-jrT RTIH" MC ARTHP/FA'^.tfrm nFCTDMD'C 

CLIMAX F0RE=;T with several SMAL' STREAMSIVAR IETY or -LOtJA R FftUMA 
IblOitOe ADVENTURE 56ST 30SW-ROCKV TLI. E '*.7hMT/A "TC'-i NATilRAl F"- 

VIRONMEriT FOR A DIVERSITY OF WILDLIFE FORMS i FDUC AT TOM AL CFMTE" PROPOSED 
1603'*10 TURF FARM 56PR 6nnw-MCKF"-RESHFR •.ini,F/S-°''VFR '5D uovF- 

MANY GRAS'^LAUD RIRQS « ANIMALSIMANY TIDFWATFP RIRDS ARE rovnriLY POUtin 
1610i*0<i CARTER '^OCK 5'>FE SW-RETHESDA 1.5^1 /AT vrA = THUP rl'/d 

GEORGE WASHT'^IGTON PKWY-A RIVERCH FLOODPLAn FOREST MO'"^ THF doT-mat ct 
1^01213 RLUNT ROAD /,0'"iOS 32PR 1 OriM-RT'*20U-"LUMT RD /AN| OAK-MTCKO^Y 

FORESTSUN IS lALtDEAD CHESTNUTS NEVER CUTIA POTENTIAL LAMD-"ARK RY DEPT-TUT 
160f21'» HOYLFS MILI viO'^OS 32PR 20'N-LIT rL^ SE^IECA '"K /dm udylfs mti ' a■^^, 

A REGTO'HSERPFMTINIE SOILS SUPPORT I^JG SOME PRAIRIE VEGET AT TON' pETM | A^|^l•<K 
160<^'215 OUIHCE ORCHARD WOODS 32ST lO'.NE-JCT RTS 20 K 1 2U/0F SERPFMTI"E COII 

FOREST-VA PI'IE'WHITE OAK'SPANISH O AK' ET. AL. DEPT- INT oftm as /. L'kNDMK 
IftOe?!/) HAWLTNGS RI STATE PARK 32ST PbOM-nROnKFV Rl E 2MI /s-RT'420 . DFPT- TUT 

RECM LANDMK-rj-PARK AN OAK STAND TO THE S WHITE' RLAC OAl^S « TULIP 
1601U3<« HO'iVFR TRACT bbPR 320SW-MT 7 ION E-"T12U /"OLLING RIDGF| A' 'i. 

FARM PASTURE I HEDGEROWS » WOODLANDS' MANY ANIMALS ' UPL AND POREST PLANT Oje.i 
lOOlUSb GREAT SENECA VALI.EY 5' PR U'lbUF-GOSHFN /E-GR^AT SEN'TA tk 

W-GOSMEN SCHO'''L RO-MOST SCENIC-MONT CM VARIETY OF COVER-HOTTOML AND. FO"FST 
I61i436 OICKFtlSON VIADUCT b^PR 1 ^OSE-DICKFRSOM /F-R«0 ow,S-m0UT"- 

ACr R() .A OFSIGUATEO CONSER VAT 10' I AREAIA STONE VIADUCT AD'^S SrFUTC MEA'iTY 
)603'«.<7 MOSFR TTACT 5SPR 1 ««'. bS-"Tl 07. E-ooTrvMC RI/L'^CAT^D O'l THC 

RTDGFS AHOVF POTOMAC-EXCEL' FNT VISTAS OF MfS' R T I MfMl. Ar ID fo^c-.ts » SPiT^iS 
Ihnb27f> IMOTAM '","(' I'JG OVERLOOK SflPR 1 ATWOOD "O.UEAR - 1M2/U- lUDI AN SP'' TUG 

COUNTRr ruun. A VTSTA-flW HWANCM STREAM VALLKY 
1605275 HUWTO'ISVTL" E OVFWLO'iK 3«PR 1 W-RT?''' F-HFLi F COTF/AT SDHFT Kl.FVATIOl 

A VIEW OF STREAM H BOTTOMLAND TO THE N H W 
1^070)3 C « CANAL 51PU ALONG POTOMAC RI /FRO'' /ASHIUGTOM DC 

TO CUMHEPLANDlTIL' l"?"* THAMSPORTFD COAL-. FLOUR. GR A Irj SLUMHER I LENGTH 1 Mb*" f 
1610')r>3 C * CANAL blPU SAMF AS Ui07(in3 /A GATEWAY TO TH<-' 

WEST « COM.'FRCF. IT IS NOW ORV. OEHEL ICT H RUINOUS I ALMOST FNTIRFLY IilTAi-T 
160^003 C » CANAL 51PU SAMF AS 160703 /NAVIGATION HF.r-,fy<', 

AS DIVISIONS iVERE COVPLET^.O-GFORFTOWN-SFNECA. 1H31 » TO HARPERS FFR V.1H3: 



47 



Montgomery County con't 



1603003 C « CANAL SIPU SAME AS 160703 /RY 1839 THE CANAL 

WAS EXTENDED TO HANCOCK S FINALLY TO CUMBERLAND IN 1850 

1608780 TRIDELPHIA RESERVOIR a^+ST ROXRUR Y-HAV IL AND ML/MD OUTDOOR RECREA- 
TION *f OPEN SPACE PLAN II RECM CONSERVING LAND FOR NATURE-WILDLIFE INTERP 

1605081 ROCKY GORGE S^ST / 

1608081 ROCKY GORGE 21+ST SAME AS 1605081 / 

1601430 GRIFFIN W M A 56PR 530NE-LAYTONSV ILLE /NETWORK OF FARMS. 

FIELDS* WO-nS SHELTER MANY FAUNAL V AR IT IES» I IRBAN DEVELOPMENT IS A Tmdeat 

1610116 MARYLAND GOLD MINE 48PR 5SW-RR ICKY ARD RD /ONE-SPVERAL GOLD 
MINES IN MONTGOMERY CN-A SCENIC HIKE EXISTS SDR OIINOING THE mine 

1610112 MARYLAND GOLD MINE »? U8PR 5W-RT18Q /LOC ATED-ROCK ■'0'" 

GIRL SCOUT CAMP (OPENED IN 1867 IN GREAT FALLS AREA I EFFECTIVE TILL 1938 

1607102 CAPUELIN RUN RIRD SANC 56PR 7S-KENS INGTON 2.5MI /HABITAT INCLUDES 

STREAM « WATERFALL-WOODED W/ OAKS»RLUE BEECH fi SPICE BUSH»70 SPECIES-BIRDS 

1602217 SYCAMORE BIRDS 56PR CABIN BRANCH-RI RD /N-SENECA CRE'^K 

EXHIBITS HEAVY GROWTH-DESIRABLE AQUATIC VEGAT AT lONr FE~D AREA FOR WATERFOWL 

1606217 SYCAMORE BIRDS 56PR SAME AS 1602?17 /NUMEROUS BIRD 

SPECIES ARE FOUND HERE-RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IS ENCROACHING 

1610103 GREAT FALL.S 48FE 1 150S^W-ROCKV ILLE 8MI /ALONG THE POTOMAC 

ARE 3MI OF RAPIDS S WATERFALLS' MUSEUM S CRO CANAL SHOW HIST OF THE AREA 

1603231 SELDOM PRFHIST IND VIL 50PR 3S-P00LESV IL' E /UNIQUE SITE WHERE 
FRAGMENTS-^^TEATITE TEMPERED POTTERY* EARL TEST KIND-POTte=Y FOUND IN Mn 

161C101 BEAR ISLAND 66FE 125SSW-R0CKV ILI..E 8 MI /AT RREAT PALI S I'! 

POTOMAC RIVER (OUTSTANDING CRYSTAL! INE ROCK GEOLOGY STUDY AREA 

160323.-^ WALKER pREHIST VIL SITE 50PR 5S-P00LESV IL! £ /qf EXTREME IMPORT- 

ANCE SHOWING POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON MD INDIANS OP EUROPEAN SETTLPMP:uT 

1603726 MCKEE-RESHERS WDLF AREA 56ST 955W-SENECA 5MI /DRpT-TNT CONSTHp^q 
THIS A AS POSSIBILITY FOR NLC FOR BIRD WATCHINGIAN IDEAL NESTING LOCATT"" 

1603232 WINSLOV prEHTS IND SITE 50PR 3SE-P0'^LESVILLE /ONF-TWP RPST ='Dr- 
5ERVED LATE PREHIST (AD 100.-1300). VILLAGE IN THE MIDDLE poTOmaC VAL'i^Y 

1601775 ROCKY RD OVERLO'TK 38pR 1F-RT124 IMT. ROCKY R/SENTr SEN-rA 
STREAM VALLEY, « ROLI_ING RIDGES CAN RE SEEN TO THE N OF THIS c;pr)j 

1601776 HAWLING OVERLO'K 38PR 1 E-LAYTONSVILLE» a^T /ON RTU2n SITE °°^- 
VIDES A VISTA-ROLLTNG FARMLAND* HAWLINGS RTVPO VALLEY TO THP N 

1612773 DAMASCUS BLUP S 38PR IE- JCT-R12U* DA^aSCUS/F ARM PATTH'/ORK H 

WOODLAND SCENES-SENPCA VAL.f^Y MOST VISIBLE PROM POnPT HTGH lOrATTO"'! 

161277lt MOUNTAI'l VIPW OVERLOr^K 38PR 1 JCT-RTl 23* MT VTP'/ d/AT PIJonUM c:?0'-' AM 
ALTITUDE-70''PT A VIEW-DISTANT MTSfSENTC ROM TNG L AUn^C APr , ALI niRPCTIONS 

1612771 CEDAR HE:ir;hTS 3RPR IN-rPOAR G'^OV/F IMI /ON RT27* OVFR|_o- i^- 
700FT* SUGARLOAC^* CATOCTTM MTS TO THE W I ONE-HTGHC-';t OWPRLOOKS IN MO^|T COU'ITV 

1612772 KINGS ACRES OVERLOOK 38PR TN-CPDAR GROVF 2VT /ON PT27*R0Li T^1G 
TERRAIN WITH ROR-PORESTED MTS AS SE'^N PROM THIS 764PT HI'^H v/amTAGE pt 

160967" EMORY QVPOLO-IK 38PR ION RT12'+.JCT RTUb /SPOT PROVincS A 

GOOD VIE"/ OF OPEN FARM PATCHWORK WHICH COMMONLY OC':URS TO THE ^lORTM-ipST 
1612770 KINGS VAL' EY OVERLOOK 38PR ION RT27* S-CEDARf^o vf/ . 3MI M-OAVIS MHJ 

RDfELEV 637FT EIKINGS VALLEY*W C ATOCT IN* SUGARLO AP* MTS* AN nriEOUALED VIE" 
1602677 TENMILE CREi^K OVERLOOK 38PR ION RT95 /.75MT e-TW0'^psO"S 

CORNER' ELV. 620 (SOUTHWARD VIEW OF TENMILE CREPK STREAM VALLEY IS OiiTST'inG 
160267R PRESCOT OVERLO'^K 38PU 1 S-RT123* . 3MI /ON PRESCOT^ RDrf^'O. 

FT ELV. *PAflORAMA PLEASING INCLUDING LTTT|E RFrr'ET" PA°K 
1605421 NORTH'-'EST RRANCH CLIFFS 5^iPU 3TN HVI RRAf^rH PARI' /c;F-oT2a, tfd a T'I 

VARIES FROM ?0'i- •^');i< (WITH SOU IR TL» DFt^R * WOnnC^i iri^* OU A TL « RTRDS* "^t^f A>.' V 
160642.. CAMP BEN' ET " OUAR'^Y 4RPR 32. 4N-RR IGHTON ^'l /RPT''). qoo-u-yiljF 

RD « NEW HAMPSHIRE AVE* REOLOG I C ALi Y SIG QUAR' -Y* M A' lY HISTORIC D"JFL' Jt\r-^ 
1612a3<^ BEN^iET WILDLIFE AREA 5-^PR 61 W-FR lENDSHIP* 1 . ^'''T /AT HEA'''-' ATr^s '^^ 

REN ET CKiA Sir^ WILDLIFE HAR IT AT, NOT ABLE V AR lET If^S-FLOR A « FAUNA* 'lUSPQIL'^'"- 
160442 ONEDWO"D MATLIRAL AREA 56PR 650N-R0CKVTLLE* 2"'I /'../-PARK- A ■' aSTFi_ a' 1-. 

OF TRASH OUMPPD BY MONT CN THREATENS MANY rtIRD VAi'TETIES THAT lARITAT A^f- 
1603480 IRVIN PROPERTY 38PR 1 ADJ-POOLESVLL E ELEM/ON RT107 , AT AU 

ELV OF 415PT A VIEW OP PATCKVORK FARMLAND lUTERSPPRSED '•■.'ITH FORESTS 
1603475 JONESVILLE OVERLO'K 38PR 1RT28*AT CATTAIL RD /AN ELV-4H0FT VIF-/ 

OF SENECA VALLEY IMPRES'.IVE PROM EAST NORTHEAST 8 SOUTH 
1611478 DAWSONVILLE OVERLOOK 38Pi I IN-DAWSONV IL' E* 1 • 5MT/0N -JT 1 ?- ' . - :i0VE A 

TRIBUTARY OF SENECA CK*A V 1ST A-D AWSONVILLE REGIONAL PARK 8 S"N' -? ■ VALIEY 



48 



Montgomery County con 't 



1603473 CHRIS.VELL ^ARM 3RPR INf^-MARTTNSRlJRG /OFF WASCHE RD» "+00 

FT ELVr PANORAMA-POTOMAC VALi FY LOOKING WEST IS EXCELLENT 
1603U76 A'lLLARD PROPERTY 38PR ION WILI^ARO RD /^l-RIVER RD. IMI 

HORSEPEN BRANCH VALI EY PROVIDES A BEAUTIFUL VISTA TO THE EAST 
16031+77 KIPLINGER OVERLOOK 3aPR INW-SENEC A» IMI /OFF MONTEVIDEO RD> 

ELV 360FTiVIEW OF SENECA VALLEY- 
16054i+0 BURTONSVILLE SANCTUARY 57PR 80NW-RURTONSV TLI E /W-RT29/1 06. F-KRI IHM 

RD LOCATION S VEGETATION EXCELLENT CONSERVATION AREA 
1603470 BALLS RLUFc 38PR 1 w-MART INSRI JPG» I'^^T /ON RT107('iO ft pL" 

OVERLOOKS THE POTOMAC VALLEY « CATOCTIN MOUNTAINS TO THE '"^ST 
1603'*72 CHER INGTOf) OVERLO' K 36 IS-CHERi" INGTO'l. 1 MI /OM v\RT \\i<^^' \or, anj 

WARM WATER FISHING IS EXCELLENT WITH VIEW OF POTOMAC RIVERfS^OFT ELV 
1606U3fl HARMAN HABITAT AREA 56PR lOnW-RER ■! YV TLLE RD /E-SENECA STATE 

PARK»N-RT112 WOODLAND 5IG AS WILDLIFE HAR IT ATr P IDGE « V TFR^^AIN RFAUTT'^hl 
1608272 NORTh.vEST OVERLOOK 38 lE-NORWC^D .75MI /ELV U25FT VTFW nc: 

NORTHWEST BRANCH WINDING THROUGH FERTILE VAL EY ROTTC^LAMOS 
1605273 PO 'LE RD VISTA 3RPR IS-EDNOR. . 5MT» RT65r)/P0LLTNG OPF"-) FIELD 

AND WO DED PATCHWOOK CREATE A MOST ENJOYABLE VISTA 

1608270 MINK HOL'.OW VISTA 38PR ION MINK HOLI.OV ^0 /'l-ASHTON Pn.l.2vTi 
VIEW OF R'iSdEO GEOLOGY OF THE PATUXEMT STREAM VALLEY 

1608271 NORBECK OVERLOOK 3flPR IJCT RT2H « RT115 /EXTENSIVE VIF- 
INCLUDING SUGARLOAF MOUNTAIN 

1606' 71* WESTFALL OVERLOOK 3R IW-OLD GERMANTOWM 2M/0'I HOYLES mill Pn 

U2 FT ELEVtVTEW OF LITTLE SENFCA CRE'^K VALLEY 
160267?i FAIRCHILD OVERLO K 38PR INEAR RT118 /VIEH TO N'' OF 

LITTLE SE'lECA STREAM VALLEY 
1602676 OLD BALTIMORE OVERLOOK 3fiPR IS-CL ARKSBURGr 3^1 /JCT-RTI?! K '^LD 

RALTO RD TENMILE CK rCARIN BRANCH . LITTLE SENECA RFGIO'JAL ^ARK VTSA^LF 

1606672 BLOCKHOUSE POINT 3RPU IS-RTVER =D.1MI /t^OUNO ALOtr^ C^'^ 
CANAL» ADJ TO OIFRSSFN WILDFOWL SANC » EXCELLENT VIEW OF doT^VAC RIVER VAL EY 

1606673 BER YVILLE OVFPLO'^K 38PR 1S-RT28 7'SMI /OM BFR^YVIl F RO; 
DOURLE OVERLOOK OF SENECA STREAM V AL' EY» W ! HO " KFRS BRANCH VALLEY. F 

1611670 COMUS OVERLOOK 38PR 1N-C0MUS» . 3MI- RTlO^/c-ROM a 60 FT "^L-V 
A SPECTAC JLAP VIEW OF SUGARLOAF MOUt'TAIN TO THE WEST 

1611671 MONOCA'-Y OVERLOOK 38PR 1S-C0MUS» . 3MT- RTIO'V/T 61»*FT P-|'' A 
360 DEGRF- VIEW-HE AOWATERS-LITTLE MONOCACY RIVER « SUGARl.OAF MO'INTAT'I 

160'iU2S GILMORE MICA MINF U8PU. 'jWITH!''! NW BRANCH P Ao l^ /LOCATE^ '/ T A 

REAUTIF'JL NATURAL STREAM VALLEYf HFRYL» GARNETS* TOUPMAL INF '^INEO HFPr 
16n'*70 SiifiARLOAF OVEPLOf^K 3ftPR lW-COMAS» 1 MI » ON RT4S/VIEW OF SUGARLOAC 

MT. FAVORITE OF MO'ITGOMFRY COiJNTY TRAVFL'RS 
160«'<27 POCKY GORGE CLIFFS I4RPU 3'4NE-MINK HOLLOW RD /M-ASHTON PD, A ocQ- 

REATION. GEOLOGIC PRESERVEf SERVES AS A FLYWAY FOR MIGOaTC=Y BIRDS 
160fl'<2'* EL' ICOT • GOLD MT'IF 48PR lUbN-GOLD MINE RO / /.■-PT6'^>0 . GEOLOGIC AL 

PARKIELFVATIONS 30 '-»»0'FT» ME ADOWS « THE RUG-FD HAWLINGS PIVER VALLEY 
leOSUpo EDNOP SOAP STONE OUARi^Y UflPU 1 1 2E-EDM0R . 2MI /SITE IS ADJ TO "''HE 

PATUXEMT RIVER FLO'nPLAIN;A FLYWAY FOR SEVERAL VARIETIFS OF WATERFO/.L 
160Stt71 PAI'lT MOAMCH PAPK UHPU ?SE-RT20f COUJMM I A PD/ 'UG'-pn GFOLOGY H 

WILOEPUrS -LIKE ROT OMLANO. A ROTAtllTAL « WILDI IFF HAVFU 
160'4''7'» //TNSLOV TRACT 6HPR 1 20S-RT1 I 'i. '(-R T2H /SI'-ICE 1 7 "^ KIJO.'/U 

AS MU^1CASTEP FARM»CHOP» PASTURE LAND. GAME HIPOS.REO TAILED HAWK»« 1--R/.Y FOv 
160'S«*?« MICA MI'IE UBPIJ lllW-ROCKY R IDGF RFSV /HISTORICALLY SIG 

MICA "T"F. OF IMnn'SIMORfPQCKY GORGF RESFi^VOI" PEGION Oc SCENIC BFA'ITY 

PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY 

170361ft wrsrro,, nRANru mapsh OIPR po-^nuw-iip tk MftPi.nORO / -rpov.'N STArio-i p. 

UMIOUF WATFRFO'/L HAVE RF' N FOUND IM THIS WETLANDS LOCALE 
171?61PP0T0MAr GEOLOGIC AREA Ufl ?OS-WHF' LP "D. r^PTaof/GFOLOGIC FORMATION 

IS A MEMHEP OF THE POTOMAC SCMO'M » P ALEOOrur PF" lOD ,„.»,^^ 

1707616 MOUNT MFHO --RANCH OIPR 2-SALONG PATUXENT RI /^-MT MEMO M'MNCH 
WETlAMnS LOrATIOM FOR HIG GAME AS WELL AS FOR UNIQUE .•'ATrPPOHI. 

1707617 niSTPKT "»\'\0\ OIPR ?^6AL0MG PATUXENT Pt /A UNIQUE WETLAUOS 
niSTRICT WITH EXCEL' rriT WILDLIFE AS WELL AS RARE '"'^TEOFOiL 

170M03 AC'OKE K CREEK INOVIL bOPO ^^"''^'•^-^' '*''*' I'^'"'"''" '-:i''2^^^^^'J.^I^'''!c t iNr 
ARCKEOl OGICAL SITE.SI STUDIES SHOW VIL-^'OS' IRI E PPE-Cho 1ST IAN FRA EXISTING 



49 



Prince George's County con't 



ITOeVCt SUITLAND ROG 08PR 20E-WASHINGTON» 3MI /S-RT'+» NE-SI) ITLANH 

RD»NC»5I.» CHF CONSIDER A WORTHY-PRESERV AT lON-EV-MARNOL T A SPHAGNUM MOSS 

1701782 PATUXENT WLDLIFE RES CTR55ni 260nNW-ROWIF-2MI /RFLATTNG TO WTLO- 
LIFE MANAGEMENT « CONSERVATION A IS CONTROLLED MIX OF VEGATATIVF TYPi^S 

1701101 BELTSVILLE ROG 08DA IN-COLLEGE PARK-3MI /LOCATED ON GROUNDS 
OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RES CTRISPHAGNAM MOSS» MAGNOLI Ar BOG VEGETATION 

1701102 MUIRKIRK ROG 08DA 15-LAUREL» 3MI i E-RTl /A SEMI-SWAMP AREA! 
PRESENT VEGATATION MOSTLY WOnnS S VINES 

1705217 HUNTERS MILL CRE' K 5QPR13'+. 'tE-POTOMAC RI»3MI /MO'JTH-MJNTERS mii_i_ 

CK IS A SHALLOW V/ATER FE~DING AREA USED RY DIVING DUCKS AT vigraTTO'I TIMES 
17172?5 EASTERN HARVEST MOliSE 62PR 3E-RT212* S-RT4P5 /REITHIODONTOMYS 

HUMILIS VIRGINTANUS-PREFERS NON-FORESTED' CULTIVATED FIELDS WITH GRAIN CRO^ 
170U210 RROWN PREHIST IND VIL 50PR 25SE-UPPER MARLBORO /AN EXTENSIVE SITE 

WITH GREAT ARCHEOLOGIC AL POTENTIAL 
1705781 MATTAWOMAN NATURAL AREA 5r>PR 3852AL0NG PG-CHR CN RDR/LARGEST CONCENTRA- 
TION-NESTING WD nUCK IN MDIOTTER' MINK»OSPREY» REAVER !SI»NC rONSTOEO A IMd 
172122t PIGMY SHREW 62PR IE-COLLEGE PARK, 1 . 5M/"TC0RS0REX HnYI 

WIN:'EMANA PRERLE has been TAKEN IN MD ONLY AT RER"'YN» HABITATS UMKUO-^N 
1705222 RED HEADED WOODPECKER 62PR 7RT373» W-MIDDLTOM RD/'^ELANERopc, fryTH- 

OCEPH-ALUS FOUND IN RIDGE. VALLEY AREA-PIEDMONTf WEST CRN» EASTERN SHORF 
170771? RFLTS WOODS 27CH 30N-UPPR MARLBORO. 6wT/0EC^T- INT GAvr A 

HIGH PRIORITY AS A POTENTIAL NATIONAL LANDMARK-COASTAL dLAIN HARD-D POorQT 
1717427 MAGRAUDER DARK 5^L 12W.NW BR ANCH, S, ^tO AVE/ A SViALL STREAM, 

QUAIL. RAB^iJTS. RACCOON. MUSKRAT. OPOSSUM, w/ OLD BEECH. OAK, DOGWOOD, mA!=>|f TRF--Q 
1705230 PISCATAWAY CREEK 16PR 15q7E-P0T0MAC TI TO RT5/A HABITAT FOR 

TYPHA SP. MINK, OTTER. WOOD DUCK. ANADROMOUS FISH & HERR ING ; T"-"^ TO SI « NC 
1712.'"-'31 BROAD CRE^K MARSHES 16PR 300N SHORE-BROAD CK /TVOHA c;p, qr todi ic; 

SP COM 'ON TO AREA. THIS AREA CONTAINED WITHIN POTOMAC RIVFO wATFOSHEri 
1710601 ROCKY GORGE iiRPR bN-L AUREL . /MI )W-RT'^5/ AN FXCn i rrjT rx^o- 

SURE-SYKESVIL E FORMAT ION-pRECAMRARI AN AGE 
] 714683 BROCK RR IDGE WETLANDS OIPU 102PTX RI AT PG-AA RDR/rONT A T^IS A V-^T^Ty 

OF UNIQUE WILDLIFE. CUR ENTLY THREATENED RY PROPOSFn oeVELOp'^ifnt 
1701603 IRON DiTS 50PR lOE-RTl . S-CONTEf Rn /OF CPETACFO'it; ^aF ; 

FOUND irj PATAPSCO ARUNDEL GEOLOGIC FORMAT ION ) DINOSAUR REMAINS DISC^' .'F^-rn 

1714604 DUCKETSVIL' E WETLANDS 1PR243. 2N-RT564, MILLME ADE R/AN I^^ WETLANnc; 
AREA WHICH INCLUDES WO^D nuCK AMONG ITS MANY WILDLIFE SEPCIES 

1714605 HIGH RRIDGE GEOLOGIC FRM48DR E-RTl 97. S-HORSEPFN /AN AREA CONTAI^I^ IG 
MONMOUTH FORMATION 

3 714606 RO«'IE GEOLOGIC SECTION 48PR ■ 50N RACETRACK RD /ALONG DEFFNSf H'^Y 
•1.5MI W-PRIEST RRIDGE TO ROWIE RACE TRACK. EX-MONMOUTH FORMATION TN °G CU 

3 714607 MEYERS STATION .-/ETLAND AO 1PU121 . 6PG- A A BDR I N-RT450/ MOST UNUSUAL •ZET- 
LAND C0NTIANIM6 CACTUS. RA^^E RTRDLIFE (PILEATED WOODPECKER) 

170 7608 PRIEST BDG GEOLOGIC SECT48DR 10E-RT3 S-RT450 /LOCATED ALONG RO 
.6MI S-JCT DEFENSE « CRAIN HWY NEAR PRIEST BDG. A MONMOUTH FORMATION 

1707609 PTX RI PRK GEOLOGIC SECT4BDR 20F-RT3. U-OT50. 30 1 /w-A -PG C'l Rnn , AM 
EX-MOnFmOUTH formation ROUMDFn RY STREAMS CROSSING CRATM HWY 

1707610 COLLINGTN WETLANDS AREAOIPR 30E-CH. W-COLLINGTON RD/A UNIOUE WD nuri/ 
NESTING A NOTED FOR EXCELLENT DIVERSITY OF WILDLIFE 

170761; LOTTSFORD WETLANDS AREA OIPR 1 10N-RT50 . W-RT556 /AREA W/ EXCFL ENT 
WILDLIFE INCLUDING RARE WOOD DUCKS 

1707612 MILI_ RRANCH SWAMP OIPR 205W-PTX RI-ml BRANCH /WETLANDS ABOll^lD 
WITH UNIQUE WILDLIFE AS C ACTI )S. PILEATED WOODPECKER I MNCP^' RECM PRFc;'-_d v AT ION 

1707613 HA^DESTY GEOIOGTC A^EA 48DR 750N W SHORE-PTX RI /S-CENT^AI_ AVF.i"- 
QUEr:N AMUE RD. SITF-PALEOGFNE GEOLOGIC OUTC^ODDInG 

1707614 WATKII-IS 50PR 20CTRL. ENTERPR ISE RDS/ONE-SEVrs AL A^^F/^S 
WITHItl PRINCE GFOOGF'S COUNTY IN WHICH FOS' ILS HAVE RE N FOUND 

1713631 RITCHIE 50PR 20SW-RT4Q5. CTRL AVE /A FOSSIL RICH AREA 

WITHIN METROPOLITAil WASHINGTON DISTRICT 
1713615 MIL^ WOOD 50PR 76. 8E-C APIT AL HGTS IMI /AN EXTENSIVE 

FOSSIL RICH AREA WITHIN METROPOLITAN WASHINGTON DISTRICT 
170562? THRIFT SCENIC AREA 52PR 16B3E-P ISC AT AWAY RD /SERIFS OF ESTATES 

WITH WOODED HILL. VALLEYS EXTENDING PISCATAWAY CK N TO TIP^ETT RD 
1732623 EAST BANK-POTOMAC 48PR 50FROM RI RFND-PISC C/EXPOS' iREt; Of COAST 

-AL PLAIN ROCKSfUNSTABLE ROCK STRUCTURE MAKES DEVELOPMENT" UNS' i TT .-.^ '! f 
1705623 EAST BANK-POTOMAC 48PR SAME AS 1712623 



50 



Prince George's County con't 



170562^ BRYAN POINT 55PR 2HS-PI5C CK .75MI /PRIMARILY WOODED 

PARMLAND REPLETE WITH SCENIC REAUTYr WETLANDS PROVIDE WILrM_IFE HABITAT 
1703689 MT CALVERT 5bPR C1.6ALONG CHR RR 5MI /w-^TX RI rtTDP VA- 

RIETY-NATURAL FEATURES. KINGRAILrRALD EAGLE' TEAL' RLACK DUCK INHABIT ADFA 
170U6P0 MERKEL ESTATE lOPP 237E-ST THOMAS CH RD /PONDS ATTRACT MANY 

CANADIAN GF'SF ANI !U ALLY I FOUND ALOUG WESTERN SHORE OF PATUXENT RIVER 
1704621 NOTTINGHAM b5PU 70PTX R I » N-UOTTINGHAM/RAIlD EAGLE'KT'JG- 

RAIL DUCK' TEAL' MUSf RAT « A V AR lETY-WDLF I CEDARS CAN ALSO ^iT FOUND THERE 
1705625 ROMFRT S^ITH ESTATE 35FE17C.2S RANK-PISC CK-oo R/AT CONFLUENCE OF 

PISCATAWAY CRE''K t "OTOMAC R TVER 1 -.Oi^nED RLUcr PROVIDES SCENIC OVE^LCX 
170b626 PISCATAvAY PARK bbFE?17.ftS SHORE-oTSC CK /RF^FARCH IS ^i^IUG 

CONDUCTED CONCERNIUG POTOMAC RIVER POLLUTION HEREJMT VERNOU CAN BE S'^'^^l 
1704627 FULL MILl. MARSH 5qPU 256PTX RI'FULL ML RR /EXCELLENT vILOLIFE 

SUCH AS MINK.RINGUECK PHEASANT ABE FOUND WITHIN THESE EXTENSIVE WETLANDS 
170fl62R CEOARUAVEN 6QPU 70ALONG PATUXENT R IVR/S-iTNUEDY RIJN.N- 

TRUMAN PT.ON W RANKJMTNK 8 RINGNECK PHEASANT FOUND HERE 
170862" SUM-'ERVIL' E CRE' K marsh fjQPU 384PATUX R I » NE- AQU ASCO/MIp^K* R INGUFCK PHFA 

-SANT ARE FOUND HFRE 
1708630 DATUXE'IT RIVER dark S^PU uOW/I PTX RI PARK /MI'JK S RING^IECK 

PHEASANT FOUND HERF 



QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY 



1807103 UMICORN LAKE lOST bON-SUDLFRSV ILl E' 4MI /E-^T313 Suo-OUNHED 

RY FARMLAUOiCOUTAIUS PE^CH, P IKE' R-'S^' RLUEGIL' S « CRAPPTE 
1801706 AUnoVF^ RR'FORFST r>"FS ?1PR iUSftUF-OA CN' RT30n-KFMT/-/ T ruesT'^R ^ TVER 

WATERSHED. STAUn OF MARDWO'^DS »SI» ^'C ' CRF CONSIDFR A PRIME WE'^LAUDS AOF" 
IflOblOb .'^YE MIL'S noun lOST bn IN WYE MIL'S /HISTORIC OOU^ vITU 

COLONIAL MIL' HAS EXCELI ENT PUFILIC FISHING FOR RASS 8 riLUF'"IL' S 
l«n?31'J SOUTHf AST roE' K-uoo'-'N CK16PR "-.OONW-CH UIL'PMI /ST-NC'CR^^ OFSTGiAT 

-ED A '^S i'"IME WETLAUOS' ^PECIES-TY"HA!DIVTNG DUCKS CAN RE i^OUNO 
lOOblOU iVYE ISLAflO 6(.PR 270nsOUTHERN OA COUNTY /MAI F-THF ARE- TC 

IJfJDFR CULT IVAT ini|» -JYF HAL » FOPME^' '^REAT EST ATE- ARCHFOLOGTC A L IUTFRFSt 
1802320 HAMRLETOU --RE' ►^ IfiPR 6mSE-KTNGS TO'VN IMT /SCENIC ■'ETLAU^S 'I 

SPECICS-SCI'^"US FIM THE FPESHWATE= MARSH'SI CITED IT IMP 'ETLAUD 
lH010i;7 RIG WO US COtlSERVATIOU A2<iDR V'i?S'V-SUDI F»SV ILl E . 1 M 1/ A nLAS'^ICAL FX OF 

OELMARVA VEGATAfTOMIvOROSn? RECM CONSERVATION ^ONTun 
18072^1 sum fuSVIL F NATU'H ARF,',?.-^ST ?3U"(-SUDI ERSV TLI E' 2MT/R 7 r m TU RE°RFS UTA 

-TIVE lASI^Ofi SHO'^r V'GFI ATTON;nr F WD AREA IS A STATE CON*"- i" " V AT lOU :.=>F.'' 
1801*712 KENT POINT "i' PR 20iinS KENT ISLA^ID /SIrlC'CRF COUSI"iFR 

IMP TO THE ORESERVATIOM OF THE RAY ECOSYSTEM I^XCFLLENT ARFA FOR RI'-'D ST' mY 
18n'f 13 LO'IG MARSH « ROnKlU ISLF6'.PR U03SE-KENT ISLAND /E-M ATTAPEX MOTH 

SITES ARE IMP NESTING AREA IN E BAY RFGION FOR MTGRATORV •• A TERFO -/L 
180'*701 KENT fiA'J'-O'/S MAPSHFS 1 7dR «03f T'I-rr ASONV TL' E' 2. 5m/f-CiheSTFD 2.'-'"T 

EXCELLENT HAHTTAT FOO v;atFRFOWL' UNEOUALl ED SCENIC RE AUTY. FNIDA' IGERFO "Y "O 
18031MI CHESTf-R JTvrp ESTUARY 1 5DP S^OOSSW-CHESTEdTO'V'I 6MI/A V 'J.UARLF CF' DTUG 

GROU'in FOP MTGRATOPY -ATFOCTiwI ;psimadTIY Af^o TCUI TuR ai shoofh TMFjFA'^LF u-ST 
180'.in? OUE' fISTOWN TAL TFO SCA0nn8PQ 1 frO'lFSF-OUE 'ISTO lU, 1 ■^^ /O'lF-'^F''' TU|A"n 

CLTF'-I TKF AREAS PFMAIUTUG IN MD COASTAI PL A I 'I I Or^ ' ipv FD IN i=>LE ISTOTFU^ '.r,F 
J80U311 WAREHOUSE rofrw 1 7PR 7 /«COX CK O''! r - nTH>-l/l\ ( 0»i IG I O ''-I '^ TU""- 

PPNTMSULA TS <^ ITF-flAYS' C' COVFS * lAGOOMSIST "FrM Pu rSFP V AT IT ON 
I^OUO •' KT'iT IS! COUSIN" V/' I ! on A '.'.PP 2''l'iAI0NG COX urri' /MOR' .St>? -.jun ' <^i ■ 

TMI«; AOFA ;iF GBAMirn rOUSEPVATTOU /OMTURl wri I SMITro TO NATIURF STM'^' 
18n';317 MO-'flfWINEV PT»MAnSuY CK 1 7PP M MW-GP ASONV 1 1 ' E' T'T /ST.ifr.cRF SUP 0"T 

porSK^VAT ION OF R^'tOU RFCAUSf OF IT"^ HTGM TTDAI MA^SU VFG" NATION 
I«n'>316 fYE "IVEO 17P0 .^',nS-OUE' 1ISTOWM-. 7MT /S T , i' IC, cnc" ro"f. t -^ir'J 

THIS A«EA PRIME wr TLAflMS l«E' SF»CPA:(»0T . ER'STP lorn HAS ' \uAno'OM("US rrS" 
180'.'. 18 MEM-'ETT POINT 5'>PR b?*>r-WYF PT»"/-r HAY /MAT' 'O AL ' MTSTO= t r AL 

SIGNIFICANCE' SI I HUG A-CIVTL WAR » WOL ANDS W/ mak|Y HAn]TTAT LOCATTOUS 

IHO'.JMO WYE r PI'/EP 17PR 3'0 SE-WYf PI /ST»tilC'CMF PECM PRF 

-Sf MVA1 lONIOTTER'CAnS^FMnANf.EPFO riMAPVA FOX S'JU I" El . W/ '-'ANY FLOR.'L S" 

iflOSTib WYE iNSTif'/rr 2'>w> io;"ir mank-wye ck /a rf presentativf 

EX-FORrSTI.AflOS-i/P'Tn nEL«AHVA PrtlluSMLAinFPT-INT REC"^ as NATL LANDMK SITE 



51 



ST. MARY'S COUNTY 



1905325 SPRING CREf:K 1 8PR q2NME-LAlJREL GROVEf 3M/S I » NCf C^F RECM PRE 

SERVATION MINK. OTTER»OYSTERS» CLAMS' WOOD OUCKS.RALD EAGLE'MANY MARSH PLANTS 
1905326KILI-PFCK CK-TRFNT HALL CK18PR 270S-GOLnEN REACH /SI.NCCBF STRONGLY 

SUPPORT PRESERVATION. HIGH T lOAL. FRESHWATER MARSH VEGETATION 
1«01319 POINT LOOK IN 29PR 60,ALONG CHSAPEAKE RAY/MIDWAY BETW PT NO 

PT.PT LOOKOUT. MAJOR SPECIES-UPLAND MATURE HRDWDS.SI RECM PRESERVATION 
1907416 ST CATHERINE ISLAND 66PR 7bW-C0LT0N /S-WHTTE NECi< doINT 

HAS 0N(_Y COLONY OF NESTING COMMON EGRETS. BLACK CR0"/NED NIGHT HERONS. ET.AL 
1^02701 CHER' YFIELn POINT 17PR 210SW-ST MARYS CITY i+M/AT ST GEORGE CK 

SI.NC'CRF REC^ PRESERVATTON!HEAVILY TIMBERED (OAK-PINE) HTGH TIDAL WARSH 
1905102 COfiL SPRINGS 03PR lOAT CHARLOTTE HALL /IN 1698 RY ACT-THE 

ASSEMBLY FIVE SPRINGS WERE SET ASIDE AS A HEALTH RESORT 8 SANITARIUM 

1901703 CORNFIELD PT GEOL SECT UflPR 120NW-PT LOOKOUT 5MI /SI RECM PRESERVA- 
TION.RARE EXPOSURE A PLEISTOCENE AGE CLAY RICH IN FOSS ILS. MOLLUSC AN SHELLS 

1901704 DRAYDEN GEOLOGIC SECTI0N48PR lOSW-ST MARYS CITY 2M/SI.NC»CBF RECM PRE 
-SERVATIONJCLAY IS FOSSIL GASTROPODS (SNAILS) ARE ARUNDANT-MIOCENE AGE 

1907424 CANOE NECK POINT br>PR 16b8C ST CLEMENT RAY /SECOND GROWTH 

DECIDUOUS TRE'^S ONLY NEST IN COLONY-GREAT BLUE HERONS ON POTOMAC RIVER 
1902714 ST MARY'S RIVER 5bPR 42r'SW-LEX TNGTON PK 4^7/ ARCHAEOl.OGIC AL. 

SCENIC. NATURAL SIG ! SP-TYPHA. MINK. NEST TNG WOOD niJCKS DNR SE'-DS OYSTER "EDS 
1"08714 ST MARY'S RIVER bbPR 320SW-LEX TNGTON PK 4VT/0NR SF~ns « VATN- 

TAIN5 EXTENSIVE OYSTER BEOS ANNUAL' Y. FXCAV AT TONS-COLO^I T Al . GOVERNORS 'jO"C 
l'''03:^2' MEDLEY CREEK 16PR 1 30S-LEONARnTOWM» ''MT /qp-qr TRPUS . T vdu.a 

OYSTER. RAR. CLAM. OSPREY ;ST RECM PRESEPV AT TO^I l="OR BAY ECOL^'^TTaI. RFASO'!"^ 
1OC4105 MADDOX TAL TER SCARP UQPR ftOOWNM-LEONARDTO''/'! 9"T/0"E-A (^E'" TI.ILAUn 

CLIFF-LIKE AREASY REMAINTiif^ TN MD COASTAI pIATN TAUSEn ni !0 TNG piETSTOC^ME 
1901706 POINT LO KOUT bbSP 640SE-SCOTLAND 4MT / Axria ACT TONS ■-"^^r 

INCLUHE-COAST GUARD STATTOM W/ LIGHTHOUSE C 18:^0. STATF daok-.torT rrv-'-T-av 
1908707 PO'^LAR HILL CRE^K 2QPR 1 0''5SE-LEONARDTO'"N 6M T /v'AT'iJF <^T A' inc-3 T' IF 

» MIXED HARDWOODS JPTE. ST. NC CBF. DFPT- INT ,RECM PRPSFrjv AT TOM 
1903707 PO^'LAR HILL CRE K 2"PR 762SF-LF0NARDT0''iN 6MT /AM y/PORTAMT rrn~ 

LOGICAL AREA 
1Q03108 REDGATE TAL TER <^rARP 48PR 40()SE-LEONARDTOWM U . Sv/pL"^ TSTOCENE AGE 

OCEAN CAUSED CLIFFS;CLAY.PEAT.SAND. GRAVEL SECTIONS ARc cyoosFQ 
1907109 ST CLEM^^NTS ISLAND 66ST 64SW-LE0NARDT0Wrj. 8^'iT /MTILTZED PRIVARTLi' 

AS A .-'DLP MANAGEMENT A, FIRST PERMANENT COLONIAL SETTLE'-IENT-^D. HIST SIG 
1901! '0 SAINT MARYS CITY 50PR 200S-LEX TNGTON pARK.6*^/0N SAINT ^APYS =■ I 

OUTSTANDING ARCHFOLOGICAL AREA (SITE OF 1634 TOWN. FIRST STATE CAPITAL 0^ '^n 
1906171 SOT ERLY 68QP 4bNE-LE0NARDT0WN. 8. 2'1/ ' ' AHOR HO'iSE-1727 

l'-i06171 SOT ERL^ 680P 4bNE-LE0NARDT0"' I. 8. 2' V ' AMOR H0'iSE-17?7 

C0M--IANDS A iic^AHTIFiiL VIEW OF THE PATNXENT RIVER 

SOMERSET COUNTY 

2014U0^ LIT''LE DEAL ISLAND b6PR 320AT TANGIER SOUND /TIDAL MARSH A UEST 

AREA FOR HERO^IS-A RA''E SPECIES IN CHESAPEAKE BAY REGTO'i 
2004482 DIVIDING CK WATERSHED 5bPR 2240N-C0KESRUR Y Rf) /THREATENED BY CO-l- 

MERCIAL DEVELOPMENT ."EXTREMELY IMPORTANT AS WDLF ARE A IPRESERV AT ION ME'"n- ^i 
2006102 FAIRMOUNT BASIN 48PR ObOW-UPPER FATRMOUMT /VJFL' PRFS^RVFT of-' 

-NAMT-A SHALI OW OVAL. ffASTN-SALT MARSH. flRUSH ! DFV OC^Horn LATE TN GEOI_ 'JTST 
2013210 BKriSOM ^atmRAL '\RF a b'-ST 16W-BFNS0N RD.r-^T13 /A GO 'D FXA.'Pi.r or 

DFLMARVA FOREST T YPES ! OCn |U j ps TRACT BETWEEN THE HTG!-!..; •, y ? TMF ^JATI >n-- 
2003201 POCn^/i')KF RTVFR SWAMP 40SP 1 2H0SW-MD. I lEL AWARE BDR /MS n^-PT- Ji |-^ , -. T /.■■■^ 

IMTERi STEO TN THE PRFSFRV AT lO'l- A. W TLDI T FF « S"MMr> FLORA ARt- Am |! !■ i,-.' IT 
20r:'4281 POC')Mi-)KE RIVER S-'/AMP 46SP 4 1 OSW-MD. flFLA'V iRF fiHR /O'if-thf '^oST --yTr-- 

-SIVE SOUTHFRfJ SWAMPS AT THE N EXTREMI"- ITS NATU'^AL OCrilRFrirF jw , ic; 
2004101 DUBLIN SWAMP BASIN 48SP 2000SE-PR INCESS ANUE.4V/A l.ARGF SHAL'O- 

OPEN DEPRES'.IO^J IMP AS CATCHMENT FOR R A ItJF ALL. RECHAR GE OF aouIFFss 
2010283 SMITH ISLAND 66H 8b37W-CR ISF TELD l.'MI /NEARLY HALF n<= TH^ 

ISLANft IS A NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE. A FEFDING GROUNnS "^OR MT'^RATORY ptROS 
2010316 SOUTH MARSH ISLAND 66PR 3072N-SMITH ISLAND. /SI r NC r r-.i.- ^pr-.i ppo 

-TECTION; ANADROMOUS FISH. STRIPED BASS. CR AB. CLAM. OYSTER . CL APp"^-' /■ t i . ,- :jo(rY 



52 



Somerset County con't 



2014101* DEAL ISLA'in WMA RT.AL. 17ST 2304W COAST-"^OMrRSET CM/nO^OE" TNG TANGIEi=! 

WINTER FEi~OING GROMNn EOR .V ATERFOWLr S ALT MARSHES ARE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT 
2009104 DEAL ISLANH WMA ET.AL. 17ST 3776SAME AS 2014104 /PART OF A COMPLEX 

OF COASTAL MARSHES* REGION ACTS AS AREA RECHARGE A FOR AQUIPGRS 
2011104 DEAL ISLAND WMA ET.AL. 17ST h760SAME AS 2014104 /SALT MARSHES ARF 

AN EXTREMELY IMP COMPONENT IN CHESAPEAKE BAY ECOSYSTEM 
2002104 DEAL ISLAND WMa ET.AL. 17ST 3060SAME AS 2014104 /W/I SALT MARSHES 

ARE PROO'ICED MICRO-ORGANISMS UPON WHICH F INFISHr SHELLFISH* CR ARS nF°EN'-) 
2012104 CEDAR ISLAND 'VMA ET.AL. 17ST b824SAME AS 2014104 
2007104 CEDAR ISLAND WMA FT. AL. 17ST 12HSAMF- AS 2014104 
2006104 FAIRMOMNT W^A ET. AL. 1 7ST1 1 76S AME AS 2014104 
20C7104 JAMES ISLAND ET.AL. 17ST 2368SAME AS 2014104 
2008104 JAMES ISLAND ET.AL 1 7ST IHObSAME AS 2014104 

2003706N POCOMOKF SOUND WETLAN0S17PR 21"bE-DARS0NV ILLF 3MI /SI "^FCM PRESERVA- 
TION OTTER* MINK. STRIPED ~^AS<;^ HER'' ING» SHAD* CRARS* CLAMS* OYSTER'S ET.AL. ■■/I A 
200fl70oN POC^MOKE SOMND WETLANr^si 7PR 13.0 SAME AS 2003706 /W/T POCnv^KE RTVFS 

WATERSHEDiLANGFORD.RICHARDSON MARSHS* MARMMSCO CK FORM THIS INIQME HASTTAT 
2003707 AN'lEMFS>EX AREA 16PR 63hSW-WEST0VFR , 3MI /AT HE AD'-.' ATFRS- AN iF 

-MESSEX RI IMP AS AQUIFER RECHARGE AREA. SPAWN ING GROUND FOR AQUATIC LIFE 
2006707 AN;EMrS^EX AREA 16PR 16.-'SAMF AS 2003707 

2013105 WESTOVER SPRING 03ST INE-WESTOVFR IMI. /ONI_'i' MAJOR SdRIUG 

IN SOMERSET CN* LARGEST ON EASTERN SHORF S-SALISc*URY 
20('1103 MANOKTN RIVER BANKS S^PR 1200W-KING'S CK-2^'I /fiflr.(s/q_ v A^lnK• T" pi 

FROM MAIN ST IN PRINCESS AN-IE SW TO TOP POINT f HTSTOR IC. FfOL'"."-. TTAI. TNjTr:?FST 

TALBOT COUNTY 

212620 THE HALF //AY* LYPF' TRFF 30PR ION RT32° /RFT»J FASTON : SA T ■ T 

MICHAELS ANCIENT LOi'l.OLi Y P INE. PFCULI AR LYRE SHADF 
2101102 EASTERN TAL-'OT TFR sC''.R = 4flPR 400N-EASTON. 3MI /LA Yr RS-r L ay . hm: ■ t , « 

GRAVEL ARE EXPOSED AT THIS SUDDEN 40FT RISE IN ELEVATION 
2101010 MILES RIVER SHORELINE h'^PR 2374MILES RI*E BANK /UNS'^OILE^ A=f<, 

WHICH CONTAINS MANY STREAVS* PONDS HISTOR TC* MOROSP? RECM dq^s-.o V AT ION 
210171: KINGS CK KINGSTON LAUD-iG16PR HI "EASTON* TURKEY CK RD/TYPMA S^ECI-.S.^ 

SWAMP FQRFST CHA'-'AECYPARIS THYO IDES » OTT F" * HER ' IMG. ET . AL. ARF FQiJUD HFO. 
210471' KINGS CK-KTMGSTON IAnn'.G16PR HQ6SAME AS 210711 //JHTTE SHAD.HICKOav 

SHAn»STRT^Fn OAS". ANAOROV-US FISH HABITAT HERE 
21010)3 SETM DFMOMSTRATil KORf ST 60ST 2S0SE-EASTON 3MI /STATT 0-/NED FOREST 

MAMAGEMi i|T A»rASM0P0SP2 '^FCM PROTECT ION ! FXCF LI Fi IT FOR NATHQF ST C^Y. MI «• TUG 
P10141S WARNF" VIinFLOWFR "OTNT 60PR 8.hIN EASTON.O'i RTr)6'-) /WO DI.AMO ;/ SPRING 

-FED STREAM Si/N''Y MOG WO "-EO HILI S IDF* V AP IFT Y OF PLANTS. 76 SP- VlLDt^LO .F^ '. 
2103-17 CHO-'TA'IK HI ( flRUCEV II.' F ) 'j'^PR "^UOALONG CHOPTAUK RI /FROM HATF'S PT »n 

N TO CLARKS WHARF RO-OI ITST AMOING WOLF HABIT AT ) S I * UC » CHE. RECV odecF = V AT I'lU 
2103?.'<0 OXFORD PHFHTST IND SITE fjOPR 2SW-EAST0N /SITE COUI.D YETLn 

UNUSUAL INFORMATION ABOUT PREHISTORIC INDIANS-EASTERN SHORE 
21017^2 MILES CRE'.K 16PR 200 ALONG W SHORE-CHK R/FROM •/INOYHILL N 

TO N DOVER RO.THIS A WAS GIVEN HIGHEST PRIORITY RATING BY SI 
21037H2 MILES CRRI K 16PR 1017SAMF AS 21017H2 /EAGLES* DELMAR V A 

FOX soul" EL MEST HF.Rf* OSPREY* OTT ER* CR AH* STR IPED MASS* ANAORO'^'OUS FISH 
2in3'16 hO/l Kf|f. POINT 16PR 321 E-BRUCEV I L' E l.bMI /sn RPUS* STR l"Fn 

HASS AflAUROMOiJS FISH, OSPREY. DELMAUV A FOX SOU If • FL i S I » NC * Cnr. , OFCM KF-.-JT';'.- 
210'j41'( black vAI.MUT POINT f)?)PR S- T ILGMAN* .'.MI /MARS'-iY GRAS"1.' I^'i 

PROVIDE AN TMo FO'D SOURCE FOR MIGRATING BIROS* V INTER TNG •/ AT L = FO 'L * FT . ' ' . 
21043^1 TUCKAHOr CRT- K ''"SPR llOnTAL-CARO CN BDR /rXTt><SIVF c-jfc;..- 

WATfR ma:jSH. INTERMIT ' ENTLY '/OODEU W/TYPHA SP* OT FR , OS°REY VOOO -"CK ET..'i.. 
210210'-. TRFO AVON ESTUARf Sl-PR 1 «1 MCONT TGUOUS TO OXFRO/AT rt^.OPTA'lK a\jc:j 

LINED MY FAMOUS HOUSES* THE TOWN-OXFORD SPRFAOS A( ONG THE E MAUK 
2103inS TREO AVON ESTUARY "j'jPR 1I07SAMF AS 2J02KJS /TMRF MILES I ONG 

ONE MILE AT ITS MOUTH. Thf ONCE GREAT SEAOORT OF OXFORD LOrATFO HFor 
2101106 wVE HOHSE « PLAriTAFIO'l 6nPR i402N-rOP!'ERV tl ' E* ,3MI /mmTLT I*-! 17n4,T'iTS 

SUPERM MANOR MOUSE WAS BUILT TO RFniACr ANOTur o, f)F STROYED MY FIOF.O"^ 1 '> 1 
2102703 MAMMLf TOM ISLAMD 6^PR f)'iS%W-ST MiriiAFLS 3MT/l'iO ArRrs-(:FL'''R AS'. 

COVER SHOAL FIATS IMP FOR DUCKS* Mr ITM. SPOT * ROCK * FT . AL . FOKMS-vOL^ 
210<<104 MILL CK lil»r) SAfirTUARY '•.6QP l'>4SM'-WYE MILI S ?MJ /OUTSruflG HAHITa: 

FOR MI«n PO!>ULATIONSlOAK-PTMF FORESTS MANY SPRINGSHIO Rn 0" i.^/r| i triGS 



53 



WASHINGTON COUNTY 



2208257 KING QDAR'-Y CAVE 4RPR bW-LOCUST ) . 5MI /CAVF W/ SIX SMALL 

PASSAGES LEADING FROM THE MAIN ROOM WITH HELICT ITES » R IMSTOMF POOLS ETC 

2219258 SNIVELYS CAVES 48PR 5E-EAKLES MILLSr . 5MI/THREF MAIM CAVES 
IN 1964f'b« EXCAVATIONS UNCOVERED INDIAN ARTIFACTS E. G. -ROr.iES> BE ADS 

2219259 WHEELER RD CREVICE U8PR SN-KEEDYSV ILLE /A FISSURE LOCATED 
ON E FLANK OF A TOMSTOWN DOLOMITe RIDGE W ALLSf CEIL ING SURJECT TO COLLAPSE 

2218260 HOLMES CAVE . 48PR 5E-HAGERST0WN-2. 5M I /ENTRANCE IS IN 

RECKMANTOWM L IMESTONE I TRENDS NE 20FT AS CR AWLW AY. DRO^S UFT INTO SMALI RQ ^'-i 

2210261 ANTIETAM CREEK CAVES i+RPR SWSW-FUNKSTO'.VNr 1 . 7MT/ IN THE W RANK-'iECK 
-MANTOWN LIMESTONE AT ANTIETAM CK ARE 3 SMALL CAVES 

2210262 ANTIETAM CREEK CAVES 4BPR 5WSW-FUNKST0WN 1.7MI/CAVE NO. 7 FORMED 
RY INT OF 2 JOINTS AT RIGHT ANGLES i ENTRANCE DROPS 8FT INTO NAR'-'OW ROOM 

2212263 ANTIETAM CREEK CAVES 48PR 5NW ROXBURY /CAVE NO. 2 IS 20FT 

ABOVE THE WEST RANK OF ANTIETAM CREEK ! CEILING OF CAVE IS REDDISH SILTSTONE 
2206264 BOONSBORO SINKS 48PR 5NNW-BOONSBOR0 1.7MI/IN 1"68 THFRF 

WERE OBSERVED 7 SINKHOLES AFTER THE DRAINTNG-A PONO ! CAVERNOUS NETWORK 
2216265 BOWMAN CAVE 48PR bE-REAVER CK-.7MI /maInJ COMPONENTS 

OF THE CAVE ARE STICKY CLAY « RED 8 ORANGE FLOWSTONE DECORATIONS 
2210266 COTL HOLLOW WELL U8PR 5 /IN ELRROOK LIME- 

STONE AT BASE-35FT MAN-MADE WFLL W/ DEFINITE SOL^TIONAL POrwrTS OM CFTLT'IO 
2216267 DOGHOUSE CAVE URdR 5 /SCAT^ERi^D WHITE 

SODA STRAW STALACTITES OCCUR OM Fl AT CFTI TMG H0RT70MTAI 0° T E'^IT AT TOM RFD 
2212268 GROVE CAVE URPP hW-RURTMFRr 1 MI /ELRRO K LTMFSTOMr 

IS ARUNDA^ITLY FOMMH MFRI^;2SPT AROVF AMTIETA'^ CK ; 4 STREAMS ON SAME HTLiST'^.r 
2?162"9 HOUPT CAVF 4RPR 5E-FUNKST0WN l."MI /SOD^ STRAW STALAC 

TITES CA'I [IE FOUND IN TUTS ELRROOK LIMESTONE CREVICE FLOOR-CAVE DE-^P WATFO 
2?:'0'^'4o MCMAUONS MIL'. CAVE 48PR 5AT C 8 CANAL /IN WOODS ABOVE 

CLIFFS AT POTOMAC RIVER LIE MANY DE' P ST^JKHOLES 8 2 CAVES 
2201247 ANTIETAM CAVE 48PR 5E-ANTIETAM /DEVELOPED IN TO'-i-- 

TOWN OOLO'iITESLOCAL INTERESTS INSIST CAVE CONNECTS TO QUA" 'Y ?MI TO TH^ m 
2^1^i251 FL(>''KS FIS URE URPR bS-KEEDYSV ILI E .8MI /THIS FIS-^URE 0"F^| 

-ED RY HUR ICANE HA/EL. AFTFR lQ6b IT WAS FILLED ".'/ TRASH RY AUSTIN FLO'K 
221<^'2S2 KE'^DYSVU.' F CAVES 4RPR 5W-EAKLES MILLS /IN THE rrokfn L T-i'" 

-STONE PLATFAU WHICH ALSO CONTAINS SNIVELY CAVFS ARF 6 SMAL' CAVES 
220825'' COLUMN CAVF 4RPR 5r l-TRFGO. . RM I /AT RASF-SMAM. Tn'.'c. 

-TOWN DOLO'-ilTF Q' lAR Y , AMMNDANCF- COI UMr.|S THROMGMO'IT TTc; i Frt.iPTH 
2 •082'-'n KrTf DY CAV'"' 48PP 5E-MT. MR I AP , . "M I /E-'<OG"^A''; CAVE '".M- 

TRANCE '^'ARTI'.M Y COVERTT) RY 2 LARGE TREE STUM^SrHAS SMAL',. ROOM LO'-i fETLTU^-. 
2:'012S3 MARKE^^ CAVES 4RPR 5ENE- ANT lET AM» IMI /OF ARCHEOLOG IC AL 

STG INDIAN MO'IE t-0S~ILS' CHARCOAL POTTERY SHERDS ETC IMD.ICATF TNO nURIAL GR 
2219254 RED HIL CAVE 48PR 5^|t IE-PORTERSTO'-/N» 1 ^I/RAS IC AL'. Y A SOL'J- 

TION CAVE IN TOMSTOWN DOLOMITE ! RFFFR 'FD TO LOCALLY AS AN IRON MINE 
2218224 WINHERS CAVES 48PP 10tl"E-MT AETMArlviT /DEVELOPED IN TOMS- 

"tOWN DOLO'^ITE ON E FLANKED WOODEN RIDGE S'-J- JUGTOWN ; COUGLOMF.'R ATT CEILING 
2.-052 5 ROUND TOP MINES 48PR 40C8O C ANAL> ROUNDTOP /AI1ANDONED LIME- 

STONE MINES. S-.1 ALL CAVES ALONG R'' CUTS.CHO CANAL AT ROUND TO". 8 -MIN CAVES 
22052-0 ROUND TOP SUM'-'IT CAVF 48PR SE-ORCHARD RD /THICK BED' iED. Ki.|0". 

RY HLACK LIMFSTONE-KEYS; -^ FORMATION LARGE CAVF.WEIJ. DEVELOPED CAVE CORAL 
22052-7 ROUI-ID TOr^ NO 2 CAVE 4RPR 5SW-HANC0CK. 3. 2MI /PAS'. AGE TREfJDS ME 

FOR 60FT.1-5FT IN HEIGHT;A FLOOR OF LOOSE ROCK.NO FORMATIONS PRESFMT 
22052 8 HEP'VIRM CAVE 48PR 5N-HAMC0CK. IMI /FORMED T'l TONOLO- 

,..AY LIMFSTOUf^ MFAR STP AT A-'.' I LI S CK SHALE. CAVE SUO'/S MO SDEL-'OTUEM GRO'VT^- 
22072 <-' BUSHFrS CAVER'I 48PR ] 5N' :W-SM ITHRMR G. 1 . 7MI/ BNSUE YS CAVF IS 

OLDEST KNor; cave IN •-^OJFORMEn PJ BLACK DOLOMITE ! S ALTPFTE" '-ITNEO TIL 1"'4 
2223--.~n SCHETRO-v::>'i CAVE 4RPR 5N-WILS0N 2MI /CAVf CONSIST-^-;' 

LEVr:LSICHA'-ii-E-'SRURG LI'^'ESTOME 8 MARTIMSRMRG SHALE "REDOMI'lATr IN REGION 
2''132^^l '.'/TLSON rA;E 4RPR 5N-WTIS0N /DFVl LOnrD IN rur- 

(riFtiC,ni)l.>Q L r-'FSTO'lF f 2 ROOMS. AT N END-S'^AMF" r^O''" TME"F IS A VFR"^ DE'^P ••iEL 
22.-'3232 FAIRVIF'/ CAVFS 4RPR 'jNMF-WILSON /LADGFST tavf hFV- 

ELOPED IN rMAMHERSRMRG L IMESTONE ) lOFT HTGM.5PT WIDF 
221 "23 CRYSTAL GROTTOES 4RPR bWSW-BOONSRORO. . 5'^I /OMF-LARGEST CA'/rS 

IN STATEiONLY COMMERCIAL CAVE IN MD SINCE 1 'i22. ARi IMDA'ICE-C AVI FORMAT lot]-", 
221323't EBY CAVE 4RPR 5SE-CHARLT0N 1.2MI /THOEF ry WIDE HOI r 

IN THE COR'IER-A MEADOW. MOST-CAVE BLOCKED BY CLAY FIL!.. 



54 



Washington County con't 



2'^.-'0yi-> DAM nou cAv^ ^f\po b'jS-nowrisviL' f»'4MI /iooft arovf r^o 

CANAL Fl.Or'W COVFP>:n MY SHALI OW SLOW FLOWING STl^FAM 
2201P36 SNYOFi^S LAtlDI'lG CAVFS UHPR lOW-SHAOPSR' IPG» 2''U /TWO TAVFS S SQmf 

ROCK SHELTERS OCCtiR IN CLIFFS ALO^gG THE doTOMaC RIVF^ •j-SHARPSRi iop 

2215237 ANKENEY cave URPR . 5SSW-BT6 SP^ INf;» 2'-'T /TN A RDrKY FSCAPo 
WENT ON W SIDE-' THE NECK' HAS 2 ROOMSfSOME SPELEOTHFvs 

2215238 NECK CAVE " '*flPR 5S-F0IIR LOCKS. 2"-^T /C •^VF-TF^TO^I Tf 
ORIGIN REPRESENTING THE PARTING BETWEEN 2 REDS»NO SOL'iTIONAL FEAT. PES 

221323° PINESRURG CAVE 48PR 5SW-P INESRURG /rJEAR TOP-CLIF" 

ALONG C«0 CANAL JPO'.VOFRY STALACTITES FL0''JST0NF QFCORATFrDOY CLAY c-| O'lR 
220t2'<0 TWO LOCKS CAVES USPR bSE-BIG SPRING /SEVFRAL S''AIJ_ 

CAVES S SOLUTION HOLES OEVELOPED IN THE BLUFFS ALONG C«0 CANAL S-T-'O LOri^s 
22112tl DARGAN OUAR-,Y CAVES itRPR 5S-DARGAN» 1 Ml /REpORTEO TO BF AN 

OLD MANGANESE mINEJ'MTHIN MINE ARE 2 SMALL NATURAL CAVE PAS'".AGES 
2220242 ART^ CAVE t8PR 5SW-00WNSVILI-F* 2*^1 /FLOWSTONE « OTHER 

SPELEOTHEMS T0TAL-15nFT-PASSAGE WAS FORMED IN BFCKMANTOVN LIMESTONE 
222021+3 CAVE-IN-THF-FIELO '♦RPR bWSW-DOWNSVILLE IMI /QEVFLOPEO IN STONE 

RIVER LIMESTONE CAVE IS HYDROLOGIC ALLY RELATED TO MC'-'AHONS MILL CAVE 
22132'4't DFLLINGERS CAVE URPR bS-P INESHURG. IMI /FLO'-JSTONF COVERS 

BROKEN LIMESTONE COVERING FLOOR-CAVE» OR <» FEW FORMATIONS ARE LEFT PITACT 
2220245 HOWFLi CAVES i+HPR bS-CEOAR GROVE /LARGE RO M W/ man 

CLAY PITS.SPEL' OTHEMSISEV' RAL OPENINGSf SOL' IT lONAL POCKETS IN LIMFSOU^ HANK 
22061R'. SOUTH '-IT RATILEFIFLD URDR UQHSE-MOONSilORO. ?. bM I /MAT I LEr 'VHIC I /AS 

A SOUTHERN VICTORY, TO. K PLACE ON SEPTEMRI--R 14,lHf)2 
220510" WO OMONT GEOLOGIC SECT URPR MOSW-HArjCOCKr HMT /EXPOS' IRE-nrvONT At I 

FOSSIL-BEARING FORMATIONS. hfLOERSRURG L T MESTONE' JI"' I ' T IGS SHAI.F 
22050ft" SIDELING HILL WILDLIFE Ab6ST 1 H37WASHT- ALLEGANY ROR /N PART 0' ITST AtlOI' IP 

CANDIDATE FOR WILDLANDS DES IGNAT ION ; EXTFNS IVE HABITAT POR V AR lETY-SPEC I F^ 
2>0b?il DAM ^I0.6 MINE URPR bESE*-PEARRE IMT /FOUND I'-l ORJS'^'i'lY 

SANDSTONE. FOSSIL MRACHIOPODS CAN BF SEFN ON WALLS IN tmp NATURAL SECTION 
221U2.'--' SHOCKEYS CAVE UHPR bE-PEN MAR .IMI /CAVE NOT LARGER 

THAN AN A SINGLE ROOMIFOUND IN VEVERTON QUARTZITF 
2?lfl2?3 JUGTO.vN CAVE URPR bSW-PONDSV ILLE IMI /ONE Oi^ ;/ASH C'l LAR 

-GER CAVFSfOVE'i ftOO FT. OF LOW STREAM PASSAGE. STEi^'PLY SLOt'ING 
221327] PINESMUPG LImESTO'IF UHQP 36"FM. C« CAN.U-RT 'SR/SCFNTC AS FCOLOGIC 

— L VALUE. LIMESTONE OF SOME COM-ERCTAI. VALUFJRTCH VARTETY OF f-IORA K F',UI|.' 
221520'.' RCVCL'.S CAVE URPR bNE-PFCTONV ILl F. . 7-'T/CL AY prfdOMTNATES 

AT CREST OF AriTICLINE.MA/E OF INTFRIACTNG PAS", AGES. ONL i" 1 "0 M OC ANY SI/"^ 
2?0fl2in HOG'-'AW CAVE 4BPR b F-MT . BR I AR- . 5MT . /INTFOr STING fi xmtr 

-ICATt CAVE. WATER AnNNDANT ; ENTRANCE ON SF FACE OF S IN'' f ■ INVE^TFMR ATES FOUU 
2215207 LICING CREKK CAVE URPR 5 W-IND. SPR INGS P'-U /SIX OPFUT 'GS TN Hr 

LOE'^lfG LI'-TSTOME.NAR OW FIS'.URE CRAWL'.MYS FROM CLIF" -ACF NOUF OVER 2nFT 
2'>02P0R fJATURAL WEL'. MRP 5 P-W ILl. I AMSPORT-3'v'I/pO»mfo IN STO^!ES ° 

RIVER LIMESTONE/SERVES AS A WELI FOR ADJACFMT FARMHOUSE 
220120b CANAL CAVE URPR bW-MIL! ERS SAWML I'^T/CAVE OUARIED EARLY 

IflOM'SfSOME OF ITS LIMESTONE USED IN WASHINGTOU MONU'-"^NT COMST^'UCT ION 
2?lb20f. DARftY CAVE URPR SNE-peCTONVLLE 1 . 6'''I/0ERR IS BLOCKS ALL 

CRAWLWAYSiBATi'LF RUN CK FLOWS ALONGSinF AND FORMS A DE' '^ "OH. AT THE END 
2J'lft203 PItir HIL' CAVFS URPR br-ROXnUR Y- . 3 MI /lU A MFAOO" F.OF " 

RFATtirOS STATIONS. FXPLORFD 1"20.SrALfn 1<I30»T';0 CAVES nrDT"t OF lb H 70 CT 
?J'16?0'i GWO'iriOHOG CAVF URP" bW-M AGTOWN- . fi*''? /E'lTOANCr roo-TRlY 

A.'-.«<O'l»nH0r, MOLF»STF=^PLY SLOPING SHAFT. T'> I ANGULAR 10 I'Y ^ PT i.MA'-'rr, ,.r, v 
?>lh?ni MT. AFT'IA CAVE URPR bSK OF MT. AF1NA /DTSCOVrvi " '> l'-^' ^ "' 

-M--( nr lAI.' Y Of'FMFD 1''32. OUTSTANOTUG FOR nFNSITY « DIVFRSTTY OF .-0"MAT 10' ;" 
2?lft?02 MT.Af.rrjA OUAR-Y CAVE URPR bNE-MFAVFR CK.-.7MI / ,.hT T r . '/ARMLF-L T''F 

MA1E«IAL POUND ALONG 2bFT. l.ENGTHI TOMSTO •/»! LI'^FSTONF O'lAR Y on uouTF >,• 
?;-01)0J AflTtfTAM llAT-LEFTFLn blFF 7RUW-M0"NSI)0R0-r, MI /HISTO"'C STTF or 

CIVTL WA<» MATILrrMATTLCPIf r» TODAY IS A fJAIIONAL HISfORK RATIIFFrrLD <"/:■>« 
S'.'lhiO? UFAVf** r»ri i< SPRING 03ST 2SF -MAGI RSI OWI f-^M T /LAPGFST SP'JING IN 

WASHIHGTO'I rOUMtyiPLO.V RAMGf VFRY MU,U»OUr OF STAIFS '-'OST tOUMIDAlM.r ' ' 
2:23101 COrioCMFAOiir CRF! K VAI I I YU'iPR 17<l /'.■/-IIAOI RSTOWN O.bMI /MOST BFAiirrFliI 

-fluff's OF POTOMAC TRIMUTAUIF'.IP^'MI LONG. < U AmrUT MUCH LOWER TUA^I I'OTOMAr 
2?1910J rOriOCMf AGUr CPiriK VAL' KYUOP" l?R(lW-HAGri<STOWU *^..bMI /SA'-T AS 2^ '.MO.'. K 

ATlPACTIVf: FLO'DPLAIfl USfT) l<»IMAtMIY FOR AOR irui T' l(»r 
2?0?103 COMOCMF.AGUt Cf*E' K VALI.f.V't<iP'( • «"OW-MAGrPSTOWN fj.bwr /SA'-«I f'. '3103 H 



55 



shington County con't 



2211106 HARPERS FERRY GEOL STATNtiSFE 20HA-FE PK» CON. POS SHE/UNUSUAL GEOLOGIC 

EXPOSURE OF CAMBRIAN S WEVERTON QUARTZITEf SANDSTONE & SHALE FORMATIONS 
2205107 ROUNDTOP GEOLOGIC STATN 48PR 205W-HANCOCK 3.5 MI /EXCELLENT EXPOSURE 

OF SILURIAN FOS=^IL-BEARING FORMATIONS* REACHES 600 FT ABOVE POTOMAC RIVER 
.221^104 DEVILS RACECOURSE tSPR lNNE-SMITHSBURG-3. 5M/UN1QUE GEOLOGIC EX 

-POSURE OF BOULDERS OF WEVERTON -QUARTZ ITE 
2211105 ELK RIDGE 55H 25605E- ANTIETAM CEM»3.5/VERY SCENIC PLATEA 

-UNIMPORTANT FOR BOTANICAL STUDYcMANY riOTED BOTANISTS HAVE VISITED 
2208105 ELK RIDGE 55H 2265SE- ANTIETAM CEM.3.5/SAME AS 2P11105 S 

VARIOUS SPECIES ENDEMIC TO REGION ARE LOCALLY ABUNDANT HERE 
2211081 WEVERTON CLIFFS 69PR 50WN.V BRUNSWICK 30MI /SOUTHERN POINT OF 

SOUTH MOUNTAIN CHAIN OF MD. 
2208082 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 55PR ON WASH-FRED. CN BDR/PARTOF LONGEST FO 

-OT PATH IN WORLD. EXCELLENT RECREATIONAL VALUE TO OUTDOORSMAN 
2206082 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 55PR SAME AS 2208082 /SAME AS 2208082 
2216082 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 55PR SAME AS 2208082 /SAME AS 2208082 
2207082 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 55pR SAME AS 2208082 /SAME AS 2208082 
221'+082 APPALACHIAN TRAIL 55PR SAME AS 2208082 /SAME AS 2208082 
2294006 INDIAN SPR-FAIRVIEW MT 56ST 11655. SN'IW CRSP 2 N PV /WDLF 8 TIMBER MANA 

-GEMENT PRACTICED AT IND SP WDLF A» CN GRANTED CONSERV ZONING TO FAIVIEW MT 
2215006 INDIAN SPR-FAIRVIEW MT 56ST 291'+5AME AS 2215006 /SAME AS 2215006 
2215211 FORT FREDERICK 50ST 25SE-HANC0CK 11 MI /BUILT IN 1756JWALL 

-S STILL STAND. HAS RESTORED WELL 8 OTHER POINTS DUE TO CIVIL CONSERV. CORD 
2211'i72 QUIRAUK MOUNTAIN f+aFE 5NE-EDGMT-2. S-P Al . 7 /VERY SCENIC HIGH 

ALTITUDE SITE. ROCKY TOP INTERESTS GEOLOGISTS. ARMY TRANSM. TOWER ON MT TQo 
2214405 CASCADE TIMRERS 55PR lOON W MD RR -C ASC AOE/ INTFPi^ST TNG RFoTON 

INCLUDES ^T views. ADPAL-TRAIL. waterfalls JUMBRELLA TREES FOUND- ACIDIC SOILS 

2205402 ROUND TOP MOUNTAIN 48PR 600SW HANCOCK-4 MI /GEOLOGIST DELIGHT 
MANY CAVES « MINERAL DEPOSITS J LOVELY VIEW. IMP FOSSIL DEPOSIT S HAS WDLF 

2205403 MILLSTONE INDIAN GROUNDS50PR lOE OF HANCOCK /ONE OF SEVERAL POT 
R I. IND, SITES. CAMPSITES 8 GRAVES FOUND. PROVIDING CLUES TO A EARLY INHABTANT 

2213613 CONOCOCHEAGUE BLUFFS 55ST 18S-I-70.W WLNUT PTRD/EXTREMFLY IMP.STRI 

-P ON EAST RANK. OUTSTANDING VIEW. UNIQUE ECOSYSTEM FOR PLANTS 
2216401 BLACK ROCK 55PR 5W- .iOLFSVILLE-2 MT /ONE OF BEST PANQRA 

-MIC VIEWS ON APP.TRAIDVERY SCENIC. THREATENED BY ENCROACHING DEVELOPMENT 
2211611 YAR'^OWSBURG OVERLOOK 38ST 400RT. 340 . WVRTN-YWB. RD/PANA. VIEW CSO CANA 

-L AND THE POTOMAC RIVER 
2215612 STONE QUAR!;Y OVERLOOK 55ST 20N- 1-70 . W-COVE RD /GOOD VIEW TO THE '-V 

EST (EXCELLENT VIEW OF FAIRVIEW MT. INCL. KNOLLS. VALES. MEADOWS & SCENIC PONO 
2201248 ANTIETAM QUAR'Y CAVE 48PR 5 N-DARGAN-2 MI /N WALL. TOMSTOWN DO 

LOMITE QUARRY! 2 FT.DIAM..30 FT ABOVE =^L00RJ6 FT CRAWLWAY 

2219249 CRYSTAL GROTTOES QUARRY 48PR 5W-B00NSB0R0-1 . 5MI /ADJACENT TO LIMEST 
ONE QUARRY OF SAME NAME. 2 CAVES. CLAY oREDOMINATE IN THESE NARROW FIS'^URFS 

2219250 DRAIN DITCH CAVE 48PR 5RT.34 AT KEr:DYSVI LE/1 FT SLIT THRU FR 
-ACTURED ROCKrSLOPIfJG CRAWLW AY .'LOCATED IN TOMSTON D0L0MITE5L0W RO~M 



WICOMICO COUNTY 



2302320 SEASIDE ALDER 63PR 640SW OF SALISBURY /vFRY' RARE" PLANT 

FOUND HERE;SI REGARDS AS HABITAT WORTHY qF PRFSRRVATTON 
2316320 SEASIDE ALDER 63PR 64 SAME AS 2302320 / SAME AS 2302320 

2307320 SEASIDE ALDER 63PR 128 SAME AS 2302320 / Same AS 2302320 

2314089 POCOMOKE RIVER « SWAMP 46PS S 8 SW-MO-DEL. BORS . /EXTENSIVE SOMTHEON 

SWAMP. SCENIC 8 DEED RIVER. RARE PLANTSJSI 8 DEPT- INT-R ECOM^ENO HIGHLY 
2306089 POCOMOKE RIVER « SWAMP 46PS SAME AS 231408° /SAME AS 231408° 
2302381 NUTTERS NECK 1 6PR 1700SV,--MARDELL A SPR-7. 5/FRESHWTR STREA^i.PE 

COGNIZED BY SI SURVEY AS PRIME WETLDS. 'MRSH GR ASS-PREDOM INATELY T YPHA f WDLF 
2309401 BELL FARM 17PR 630SW-SALISBUR Y-3 MI /PINE * HARDWOOD FO 

REST 5 WATERFOWL NEST. FEED. NURSERY AREA (MARSH THREATENED BY SALISBURY GROWTH 
2308017 JOHNSON WDLF REFUGE 56ST 140SE-S ALISBURY-7 MI /WOODED WDLF CONSF" 

V.A.SE WICOM.CN. LOBLOLLY FOREST REFUGE FOR NUMEROUS BIRDS R MAMMALS 
2306018 ADKINS POND 8 RUN lOPR 1 5SE-PITTSV ILLE-1 5MI /PART OF POCOMOKE 

DRAINAGE BASIN! A CYPRESS SWAMP NEARBY 
2308015 AIRPORT CONSERVATION A 55PR 200W-',iICOM AIRPORT 5m /CENTERED AROUND A 

CREEKiSCENIOPOTENTIAL FOR RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 



56 



Wicomico County con't 



2308016 SLAB RDG H TONYTANK CK 16PR 528S-SALISBURY-2. SMI /SCENIC CKSJPOTENTI 

AL RECREATIONAL AREAS I IF NOT PRESERVED* WILL BE ENGULFED IN URBAN EXPANSION 
2308013 WALSTON CONSERVATION A 16PR 32W-S ALISBUR Y-UMI /SCENIC »POTENTI AL A 

FOR HIKING" NATURE 5TUDY» PICNICKING* FISHING f LOBLOLLY S VA. P INES» LWLND HRDWD 
2305013 WALSTON CONSERVATION A 16PR 522 SAME AS 2308013 / SAME AS 2308013 
230401'* WICOMICO STATE FOREST 32ST 1250SSW-PITTSVILLE-3MI / LOBLOLLY PINE»RED 

& WHITE OAKI ADVISE CONTINUE CONSERVATION S LIMITED RECREATIONAL USAGE 
2301782 UPPER NANTICOKE RIVER 17PR U60GW-HEBRON-8 MI /IMMENSE TinAL MARS 

HES»SIGNIFICANT OSPREY. OTTER » WHITE SANO'HICKORY SHAQJWTGHLY RECOM. PY SI 
2311012 CON .'ELLY ml CK CONSERV A16PR 380N-S ALISBURY-5MI /NUMFRODS FRESH.'/ATR 

MARSHES iEXCELLENT HABITAT FOR FRESHWATER FISH S NUMEROUS MARSH ANIMALS 
2313106 SCHUMAKER POND lOPU 30SE-SALIS8UR Y-2. 3MI /ONE OF FEW RFMAINI 

NG PONDS IN STATE iSURROUNDED BY LOBLOLLY fi VA. PINES » INHABITED BY PIKE'PASS 
2305106 SCHUMAKER POND lOPU 30 SAME AS 2313106 /SAME AS 2313106 

2312707 STUMP POINT 17PR 832SW-QUANTIC0-12MI /IMP. WOLF A.»mig. 

WATERFOWL ABUNDANT. NESTING AREA FOR LOGGERHEAD TURTLE. RECM. BY 51 & CBF 
2308104 DARKER POND lOPR 27ESE-SALISRURY-3. 2MI/W/ IN SCENIC FOREST 

PIKE. BLUEGILL. CRAPPIE. BASS (ONE OF STATES FEW REMAINING PONDS 
230U10'* PARKER POND lOPR 27SAME AS 2308104 /SAME AS 2308104 

2305105 PITTSVTLI E BASIN 06PR lOOONE-S ALISBURY. 6M I /A Low SHALLOW 

BASIN FORMED BY OCEANIC DEPOS ITION. C ATCHMEN ARE A. RECHARGE AREA FOR AQUIFER 
2305102 LEONARD ^'ILL POND lOPP 40NrOE S AL ISBURY. 4. 7MI/BASS. BLUEG ILL. P IKE 

CRAPPIE ISCENIC OAK-GUM. PINE FOREST IHAS AN AVERAGE DEPTH OF 3FT 
2301103 MOCKINGBIRD POND lOPR 15E-MAR0ELLA SPRINGS /HAS AN AVERAGE 

0EPTH-2.5FT I BASS' BLUEGILL INHABIT (OAK-GUM. PINE FOREST !ONE-FEW MAJOR PONDS 
?30510j ANCIENT RIVER CHANNEL BWPP 224N-S ALISBURY. 3. 5M I /RIVER CHAN EL HAS 

A SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL DEPOSIT. ABILITY TO STORE PERCOLATING RAIN WATER 
530Q10 I ANCIENT RIVER CHAN EL 69PP 140SAME AS 2305100 /SAME AS 230510 
231110': ANCIENT RIVER CHANNEL 69PP 155SAME AS 2305100 /SAME AS 2305100 
2301101 BARREN POND lOPR 30E-MAR-DELA SPRINGS /SUR-!OUNDEn BY GUM. 

8 PINE( ABUNDANT GAMEFISH INCLUDING BASS « BLUEGIL'.S 



WORCESTER COUNTY 



2407725 ROCOMOK'E STATE FOREST b'.j%J 8472FEW ACRES NW WORCST/SWAMP FORESTS. OPEN 
MEADOWS. TRIBUTARIES. E SHORE PINE FORESTS (SI. NC* CB"^ GIVE WETLAND HIGi-i VALUE 

2408725 POCOMOKE STATE FOREST bbST 2050SAME AS 2407:'25 /RICH NATURAL AREAS 
FORM HABITAT LOCATIONS FOR A VARIETY-PLANT S ANIMAL LIFE 

24027^5 POCOM.KE STATE FOREST 5bST 2624SAME AS 2407725 /VALUABLE TO AQUA- 
TIC ECOLOGY. ONE PORTION HAS BEEN DESIGNATED AS A VILDLANOS CANDIDATE 

24080.6 BIG MILL POND lOPR 1 a2SW-ST0CKT0N. SMI /SCENIC VALUE UN- 

EQUALED SONE-FEW FRESHWATER LAKES IN MD.RICH IN AQUATIC LIFEiCYPRESS TPE'S 

2410226 OCEAN CITY NATURAL AREA 5^>ST 140CEAN CITY BoiOGF /N SIPF-ACCFS'; TO 
IJP-^EH OCEAN CITY BRIDGE GRASSES. MARSHLAND. PE' D AREA FOP -aLnLTPF 

2403721 BIG CYPRES- SWAMP 55PR 218NW WORCESTER CN /mooOSP? REC'-' PRO- 
TECTIVE 70MING(REL.I ABLE. ACCESSIBLE PLACE TO FIND SWAIMSOU'S WARBLE" 

2410105 SINEPUXEMT. CHINCOTEAGUE 1 7PR 2004AT SINFPUXENT BAY /maRSHE^ RORnFRTMG 
THE SINEPUXENT AND CHINCOTEAGUE BAYS' MD ONLY COASTAL WETLANDS 

2403105 SINEPUXENT. CHINCOTFAGUE 17PR 1260SAME AS 2410105 /CLEAN WATER. OPODUC 
-TIVE MARSH. UNIQUE HAM OCKS LUSH ST ANDS-PINE' HOLLY. SWEATR AY. S ANDY BEACHES 

?40'il05 SINEPUXEMT. CHINCOTEAGUE 1 7PR 1568SAME AS 2410105 /PEST T'lG. n°E "DIM'; 
PLACE C'OP MANY SP-«/ATKRFOWL. OSPREY AND BALD EAGLE. ABUMOAMCE-SOMGRTRDS 

2402105 SINEPUXENT. CHINCOTr AGUE 1 7PR ?57«SAME AS 2410105 /WATER CONTADS A 

GREAT VARIFTY-FINCISH W/ COMMERC I Al. RECREAT lONAL FISHING CLAM' TNG. C= AH ING 

240810'. SINEPUXENT. CHKICOTFAGUF 1 7PR 34bSAME AS 2410105 /SALT MARSHES ViL- 
UAMLE (IRE: OING. NURSING GROUNOS FOR FISh;F00D "^OR BI^DS. ma •'■ ALS 

240«?.'3 MIL'S ISLAND 66PR 710N-MD»VA HOP 2MT /ISLAND TOUT ; 

EXTENSIVE SALT MARSHES I OSPREY. HERON BLACK nuc^S. MALLARDS. FISH. CLAMS. FTC. 

2402437 "ORINS MARSH 66PR 40S-HANDYS HAM"0CK. 4M/L AUGHTNG ""UL' S 'J 

FORESTERS TERN ARE FOUND HERE THE LARGEST COLONY 01^ EASTERN SHORT 

?402'^27 CASTLE HTL". MATUOAL AREAb5ST 20. 8E-HT1 1 J. SW RT12 /MiXTIi""^-!" " ' T H 
MEADOW.A SCENIC fJREAK IM HWY. NEST ING. FETDING PL ACF- AN IMALS « KT'D'; 

2403228 HASTIfJGS TRACT 5tST 12N-RT50.W « E -RT1]3/TW0 \/F'5Y-<.'-- i^ 

AREAS»MATIiRe PORJiSTS. SCENIC RESPITE* HABITAT LOCATION. AUD ROFFFW /oi ■ 



57 



l/brcester County con't 



2410101 ASSATEAGUE ISLAND 66 J 93105W AT CO OC TO VA /GEN-' JNDEV. » R ICH 

FOR WDLFISUPERR REACHES» DUNES' FST» WTLD (RARE WDLFJFLWY FOR MIGRATORY RIRDS 

2«t07102 NASSAWANGO CREFK FURNACE50QP 13.5 SW SNOW HILL /REMAINS OF FURNACE 
OPERATED 1832-lR'+7f SURROUNDED TODAY BY LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST 

2t0.8103 OAK & SASSAFRAS HAMM0CKS5b5T 10002 MI E-STOCKTON /OIITSTANDING 
HABITAT (SALT MARSHES S PONDS ;2MI FRONTAGE ON CHINCOTEAGUE BAY 

2408007 GEORGE ISLAND LANDING 55PR 1+86SE-ST0CKT0N 2. SMI /SCENIC' UNUSUALLY 
RICH IN PLANT H ANIMAL LIFE) M0R0SP2 RECM. PURCHASE BY STATE 

2408008 ERNEST A VAUGHN WMA 60ST 640SE-GIRnLETREE 1 . 5MI/EXCELLFNT HARITAT 
FOR WDLF FETD AR FOR MIG WTFWL* ONLY PROTECTFO AR ON W SHR CHINCOTF AGi IE RAY 

2410443 ISLE OF WIGHT 66PR 900NP OFST. MRT. NK. W OC/UNIQUE W/FST WTLD 

WTFWL FEED NEST. » MOST DESIRABLE BUFFER BETW HGH DEN. OEV-OCE&N P/WEST OC 
2402316 ALNU5 MARITIMA 63PR 5P0C.RI.WSHD W SN. HL/VERY" RARE PLANT 

WHICH IS FOUND ONLY IN DELAWARE' MARYLAND' fi OAKLAHOMA IS FOUWO HERE 
2410440 SINEPUT BAY 8 CHNL ISL 66PR lOOSCAT. IN SINPXT BAY /ISLANDS ARE NEST. 

SITES FOR COMMON TERM' LEAST TERN' GULL BILLED TERN' SANDWICH TERM' ROYAL TERN 
2403442 NEWPORT FRMS « JENK.PND 56PR 320 N NEWP BY'2 S GRM/LGR.FRM & ARTIFIC- 
IAL POND ATTRACTS EXCELLENT WATERFOWL. HAWKS' DOVES' OWLS' ETC. ARE FOUND HERE 
2410317 SCHWALHEA AMERICANA 63PR SIN W OCEAN CITY /VERY RARE AND ENDA 

NGERED PLANT ACCORDING TO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION SURVEY 
2402219 NA5 CK PREH IND VIL SITE IPR 3 NW OF SNOW HILL / SITE INC. BURIALS 

DATING BACK TO TIME OF CHR 1ST ! V AR lOUS ANCIENT ARTIFACTS 
2402-'31 COM-.:ON TEAL 62PR 5C0ASTAL A.WORCST CN/RARF WINTER VTSTT 

OR IN COASTAL PART OF COUNTY 
2410439 ISL.OFc- ASSAT.WEST C0AST66PR lOOCHIN BY W CO. ASSAT /VALUABLE WILDLIPF 

HABITAT.-BEST H ONLY KNOWN NEST AR.IN STATE FOR LAUGHING GULLS' SKIM 'ERS' ETC 
240178S HICKORY PT CYPRESS SWAMP19PR 3270E RK.P0C.R1.2 SW UV/CYPRS"^ TRE^S.CROS 

S VINES' EXCEL' ENT AREA TO STUDY RUTTERFIES' HFRPETOLOGIC AL SPFCIES S BIRDS 
242^784 POCOMOKE RIVER S'iAMP 46PS 5350S-SW OF MD -DEL. BDR/V ALU ABLE NATiJRAL- 

ASSET IN MDSSCENIC RIVER IS DEEPEST RIVER FOR ITS WIDTH IN THE WORLD 
2405784 POCOMOKE RIVER SWAMP 46PS 512SAME AS 2402784 /SAKE AS 2402784 8 

ONE OF MOST EXTENSIVE SWAMPS THIS FAR NORTH IN THE US 
2403784 POCOMOKF RIVER SWAMP 46PS 2170SAME AS 2402784 /SAME AS 2402784 

MAGNIFICENT STANDS OF BALD CYPRESS' WHITE CEDAR' SWEETB AY ASH 4 OTHERS 
2404784 POCOMOKE RIVER SWAMP 46PS 1640SAME AS 2402784 /SAME AS 2402784 « 

RARE PLANTS SUCH AS DWARF TR ILLIUM' SHOWY LADY SLIPPER J CROSS VINE FOUND 
24087H4 POCOMOKE RIVER SWAMP 4ftPS 1290SAME AS 2402784 /SAME AS 2402784 

PORTION OF RIVER UNDER CONSIDERATION AS MD WILni.AND 
2407784 POCOMOKE RIVER S'VAMP 46PS 32575AME AS 2402784 /SAME AS 2402784 

GIVEN A HIGH PRIORITY AS POTENTIAL NATURAL LANDMARK BY DEPT- INTER TOR 
2417784 POCOMOKE RIVER SWAMP 46PS' 450SAME AS 2402784 '/SAMF AS 2402784 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION DESIGNATED AREA AS IMP IN CHESAPEAKE RAY REGION 
2410438 ISL BELOW SOUTH dqjnt b(jPR 2E-HANDYS HAMMOCK 3M/'VELi ISOLATED poqm 

DEVELOPMENTS ENDANGERED BY EROS ION 5 LARGEST HERON COLONY IN US 



i8 



APPENDIX C 
PROPOSED WILDLANDS 



Reference Numbers 



County Wiidland Proposed in DKR 



Allegany Green Ridge State Forest 
Rocky Gap State Park 
Warriors Mountain 
Warriors Mountain 
Dans Mountain Wildlife 

Management Area 
Sideling Hill Wildlife 
Management Area 

Baltimore Gunpowder State Park 
Gunpowder State Park 

Caroline Tuckahoe State Park 



DSP 



8U-2 



Acrea^re 



U7-1 


90I-I8U 


750 


31 


902 


1,500 


89-2 


903 


600 


89-1 


90U 


900 


62 


905-703 


7,900 



9OO-I8U (Allegany) 
900-089 (Washington) 



18-1 

18-3 


900-085 
901 


UO-2 


900 (Caroline) 
900 (Queen Anne's) 



600 



Dorchester Taylor's Island Wildlife 
Management Area 



Frederick 



Garrett 



iioward 



Cunningham Falls State 


7-1 


900-702 


1,200 


Park 












Cunningham Falls State 


7-2 


901-702 


2,200 


Park 












Cunning 


jham Falls State 








Park 






7-3 


902-702 


700 


Potomac State 


! Forest 


50-3 


900 


500 


Potomac State 


J Forest 


50-1 


901-008 


575 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-18 


902-008 


2,000 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-19 


903-008 


900 


Sava/^ 


River 


State Forest 


51-17 


9OU-OO8 


1,690 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-16 


905-008 


1,200 


Savaf^e 


River 


State Forest 


51-lU 


906-008 


80U 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-2U 


907-008 


1 , 600 


Sava^ 


River 


State l-'orest 


51-22 


90O-OO8 


1,200 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-11 


909-008 


1,200 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-07 


910-008 


700 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-27 


911-008 


950 


Savage 


River 


State Forest 


51-26 


912-008 


85g 


I^ava^ 


River 


State Forent 


51-12 


913-008 


850 


'.'^avau^ 


F<iver 


State Forent, 


','1-13 


91I4-OO8 


750 


Sava//« 


Hiver 


State Koreut 


51-25 


OT^-oon 


yno 


r'atuxent State I'ark 


20-1 


900 (Howard 


1 










900 (Montgomery) 





S9 



Appendix C con't 



County V-/iIdlnnd rroposod in 

Somerset Janes Island State lark 
Janes Island State Park 
Pocomoke Sound Wildlife 

Management Area 
Cedar Island Wildlife 

Management Area 



Worcester I'ocomoke State Forest 
Pocomoke State Forest 
Pocomoke State Forest 
Pocomoke State Forest 
Pocomoke River Wildlife 
Management Area 



Reference Numbers 



DNR 


DSP 


Acreage 


20-1 


900-104 


1,79? 


20-2 


901-104 


2 , 496 


83 


902 


922 


60 


903 


2,880 


49-7 


900-725 


581 


49-2 


901-784 


500 


49-6 


902-784 


500 


49-9 


903-784 


500 


82 


904-784 


505 



Source: Department of Natural Resources. Potential Wildlands in Maryland . 
December 1973 



60 



SECTION II 



Natural Areas of the 
Chesapeake Bay Region 



ECOLOGICAL PRIORITIES 

Center for Natural Areas 

Ecology Program 

Smithsonian Institution 



NATURAL AREAS OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 
Ecological Priorities 



A Report By 



Center for Natural Areas 

Ecology Program 
Smithsonian Institution 



May 19 7 A 



Dale W. Jenklna'j/Ph. D. 
Principal Invjyilgator 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This report would not have been possible without the generous 
financial aid and substantive guidance provided by three organiza- 
tions: The Nature Conservancy, the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, and 
the Irving Kingsford Charitable Trust. We are most indebted to them 
for their kind support . 

We would also like to thank Smithsonian staff who are not part 
of the Ecology Program but who nevertheless applied their valuable 
time and services to this effort, especially the energetic volunteers 
who came to us through the Smithsonian Associates volunteer program. 

We are grateful to all those in the scientific community and 
other professions who have given their time and specialized compe- 
tence to the study of natural history in the Bay region. We hope that 
they are all credited properly in the pages that follow. 



11 



Table oF Contients 

page 

Acknowledgements II 

List of Tables iv 

List of Maps v 

I. INTRODUCTION 1 

Objectives 4 

Survey Concept 4 

Scope of Survey 7 

Sources of Information 7 

Staff 10 

TI. PRESENTLY PROTECTED AND PRESERVED LANDS 11 

Protected Federal Lands 13 

Protected State and Local Lands 15 

Preserved Natural Areas 18 

III. DEFINING THE NATURAL AREAS 20 

Important Biotic Communities 24 

Rare and Endangered Animals " . 30 

Rare and Endangered Plants 34 

Range Phenomena 35 

Seasonal Concentration of Animals 37 

Commercial Game and Unusual Animal Populations . . 40 

Paleontological Features 41 

Well-documented Sites 42 

Exceptional Individuals or Associations 42 

Size of Areas 43 

IV. RANKING THE AREAS 45 

On Methods 45 

The Numerical Ranking System 47 

Example of the Rating System in Use 53 

V. MASTER LIST OF NATURAL AREAS (Colored Section). ... 54 

Primary Natural Areas Recommended for Protection . . 55 

Secondary Areas Recommended for Consideration ... 73 

Index of Areas by State and County 119 

Index of Areas by Alphabetical Order 130 

REFERENCES 141 

APPENDIX A - DESCRIPTION OF TllE CHESAPEAKE I5AY RKGION 

APPENDIX B - BIOTIC COMMUNITIES OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY 

APPENDIX C - RARE, ENDANGERED AND TIIREATENEI) VI-RTEBRATE 
SPECIES OF THE CHESAPKAKE BAY REGION 

APPENDIX D - RARE, I'NDANGKRED AND ENDEMIC PLANTS OF- THE 
CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 

APPENDIX E - PRESENTLY PROTECTED AREAS OF THE liAY REGION 

iii 



LIST OF TABLES 

page 

1. Agencies and Organizations Contacted in the Survey .... 8 

2. Presently Protected Areas of Chesapeake Bay Region .... 12 

3. Preserved Natural Areas 19 

4. Criteria and Quantitative Values for Selection of 

Natural Areas 52 

5. Master List of Natural Areas (Colored Section) 55 



IV 



LIST OF flAPS 

Page 

1. Map of Chesapeake Bay Region 6 

2. Areas Currently Protected in Chesapeake Bay Region 
1:250,000 

3. Zoological Factors of Ecological Importance in the 
Chesapeake Bay Region 1:250,000 

4. Botanical Factors of Ecological Importance in the 
Chesapeake Bay Region 1:250,000 

5. Areas Proposed for Preservation in the Chesapeake 
Bay Region 1:250,000 

6. Topographic Maps (280) of the Chesapeake Bay Region 
(7.5 minute USGS Quadrangles) 1:2A,000 

These maps are on file at The Nature Conservancy, the Chesapeake 
Bay Foundation, and the Center for Natural Areas. Copies may be 
obtained from the Center by calling (202) 381-6568. 



I. INTRODUCTION 

Chesapeake Bay and its watershed comprise one of the most 
productive estuarine areas of the world. It is not altogether 
coincidental that the Chesapeake Bay region also supports one of 
the nation's fastest-growing populations. The result is that the 
land, especially along the coast, is sprouting residential, commer- 
cial and recreational developments at an accelerating pace. 

In a region that historically has been heavily lumbered and 
extensively tilled, the present encroachments severely threaten 
what few undisturbed natural areas still remain -- bogs, mature 
forests, tidal wetlands, swamps, marshes and other areas of 
importance to plant life, wildlife, fisheries and man. It is a 
familiar litany in most parts of the United States. 

Recently private groups and public institutions and govern- 
ments have recognized the urgency of preserving natural areas of 
various kinds. A number of states have endeavored to inventory 
the natural lands within their borders as a necessary first step 
in enacting protective measures. For example, New Jersey is pre- 
paring detailed maps of its coastal wetlands to form the basis of 
stringent new laws regulating development. Among notable state- 
wide Inventories of natural areas are those of Wisconsin, Georgia, 
lllinol:^, Michigan and the New England states. About 30 states 
have some natural areas program underway. 



■1- 



-2- 

Chesapeake Bay has not lacked such surveillance. A "Catalog of 
Natural Areas in Maryland" was prepared by the Maryland State Planning 
Department in 1968 and is presently (1973-74) being revised. This 
includes historical, geological and ecological areas for the entire 
state. Another report, "Integrity of Chesapeake Bay," done for 
Maryland, describes the Bay's problems and some goals for it in rela- 
tion to water supply, pollution, population, recreation, transportation 
and industry. 

A "Maryland Outdoor Recreation and Open Space Plan" was developed 
to provide recreation opportunities and guidelines for conserving and 
preserving depletable natural resources. A few natural areas of high 
scenic or scientific value were earmarked for limited recreation use 
and for the preservation of unusual plant and animal species and extra- 
ordinary habitats. 

In Virginia, a report called "Critical Environmental Areas" identi- 
fies, in a preliminary way, areas of natural, scenic or historic value 
which contribute to economic, esthetic or cultural well-being of indi- 
viduals and society. Both Maryland and Virginia have published reports 
that propose rivers for official Scenic River designation and stress 
unique scenic, fish and wildlife, and other recreation values that 
warrant preservation and enhancement. 

These and other studies that touch on Chesapeake Bay recommend the 
preservation of areas primarily to meet the greatly increasing demands 
for outdoor recreation. They, therefore, tend to treat biotic communi- 
ties only in a general way. They consider ecological preservation and 



-3- 



values only as a requirement for maintaining the areas in a healthy 
and esthetically pleasing condition. Clearly, there are many legiti- 
mate uses and values of natural areas, from camping to insect observa- 
tion and from boat-landings to bird sanctuaries, but some areas need 
to be set aside in their natural condition and left alone. If we are 
to preserve the Bay's tremendous ability to produce fish, shellfish, 
waterfowl and other important life; to break down human sewage wastes; 
and to carry out its many other functions, then we also have to pre- 
serve a significant number of breeding grounds, freshwater and salt- 
water marshes, and other areas of ecological significance. In short, 
in order to maintain the valuable natural yields of the Bay, we need 
to assure the maintenance of the Bay's natural integrity. 

Not all of the Bay can be preserved, however. Growth of 
industrial and residential areas will continue, as will the expansion 
of recreational uses of the land and water. Faced with the reality 
that only limited preservation is possible, the ecologists' responsi- 
bility became apparent: to point out areas which should receive the 
highest priority in preservation efforts. Thus, as thoroughly surveyed 
as the Bay had been, there remained an urgent need to determine its 
ecologically most important plants, animals, biotic communities and 
natural areas. It is urgent that such areas be evaluated and priorities 
set for procurement and preservation. 

Recognizing this need, The Nature Conservancy and the Chesapeake 
Bay Foundation established a grant of $15,000 for an ecological survey 
of the Bay region. In July, 1972, the Ecology Program in the 



Smithsonian Institution's Office of Environmental Sciences provided 
matching funds and established the Smithsonian Center for Natural 
Areas to undertake the task. 

Objectives 

Briefly stated, the task was this: on the basis of a new survey, 
to recommend for procurement those natural areas which Smithsonian 
personnel judged to be of highest priority for preservation action. 
This in turn called for the creation of a survey concept including an 
evaluation system — a concept that could function within rather narrow 
limits of time (two years) and expenditure, and therefore make use of 
already available information. Also, the system for organizing the 
data and ranking the areas had to be flexible, to allow for additional 
details as they accumulated and for changes in the landscape as they 
occurred. Development rarely pauses for surveys of this kind: on 
several occasions in the course of the study, a prime natural area 
would be taken out of contention by development, and we would have to 
erase it from our maps. Finally, the new survey concept, it was hoped, 
would not only provide the data necessary for decision-making in the 
Chesapeake Bay region but also would serve as a model for similarly 
motivated surveys in other regions. 

Survey Concept 

The survey concept includes four fairly distinct phases. (1) It 
was first necessary to determine and map all of the areas in the 



region which are presently protected from uncontrolled development and 
those which are properly preserved and managed as natural areas. (2) 
The second phase involved determining and mapping the locations of 
ecologically important and significant flora, fauna, biotic communities 
and ecosystems. This was done on the basis of a full literature search 
and of existing field studies and recommendations from available sources 
as well as preliminary field checks of the information thus received. 
(3) Selected ecological criteria were assigned numerical ratings and, 
by the use of overlay maps and a computerized data storage and 
retrieval system, all the locations noted from phase 2 were given a 
numerical rank. Thus, locations with the highest ecological value 
could be determined and proposed as the primary targets for procurement 
and other protective measures. 

A final and crucial phase (4) was not within the scope of the 
contract for this study: it remains to conduct extensive field checks 
and feasibility studies of the proposed areas. The purpose of such 
fieldwork is threefold: to determine if the ecological information 
used in this study was accurate and up-to-date; to determine how 
vulnerable the proposed sites are to development and other intrusion; 
and to determine such matters as ownership, availability, cost of 
acquisition and the requirements for proper management after procure- 
ment . 

MOTE: Thi3 survey should not be considered final or complete. Some 
prime natural areas may havp. been inadvertently missed which 
should have been Included. The Center for Natural Areas 
welcomes any and all additional ecological information to 
Improve its knowledge of the Bay region. 



-6- 




-7- 



Scope of Survey 

In this survey, the first three phases were accomplished including 
preliminary field checks on about 70 out of 232 areas, or 30 percent 
of the areas studied. The survey covers some 12,600 square miles (see 
map on page ). The region includes the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin 
between the Pennsylvania and North Carolina state boundaries. It is 
bordered on the west approximately by the fall line, i.e., the line 
separating the coastal plain from the Piedmont area extending from 
Baltimore through Washington to Richmond. On the east, the boundaries 
include the Chesapeake Bay estuarine drainages (though not those drain- 
ing to the Atlantic). Most of Delaware is excluded. While the study 
area includes the land adjacent to the tidal reach of the major rivers, 
it does not include the extensive drainage areas of the upper Potomac 
or Susquehanna Rivers. 

Of the 12,600 square miles covered in the survey, 941 square miles 
were found to be in the category of 'already protected.' Some 534 
square miles, in 232 separate sites, were identified as natural areas 
with potential need for protective action — that is, about 4.2 percent 
of the total study area. Of these 232 sites, 64 have been placed in a 
high-priority category so that roughly 2 percent of the Bay region area 
is recommended for procurement or other preservation action. 

Sources of Information 

One of I he results of this survey Is an awareness on our pari of 
the coriHidurable amount of crologlcal and biological Information already 



-8- 



avallable concerning the region. Our efforts have shown that in areas 
similarly endowed with published data, this kind of survey can be an 
effective means of making a rapid and inexpensive evaluation of natural 
areas. There are, of course, gaps in the available information — and 
some of them are pointed out in the pages that follow — but the region 
is blessed with much data and many individuals and organizations with 
considerable knowledge. 

In the course of the survey, the Center for Natural Areas 
received invaluable data from the groups and organizations listed in 
Table 1. 



Table 1. AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS CONTACTED IN THE SURVEY 



PRIVATE 



American Fisheries Society 

American Shore and Beach Preservation Society 

Audubon Naturalist Society of the Central Atlantic States, Inc. 

Audubon Society of Southern Maryland 

Canoe Cruisers Association 

Central Atlantic Environment Service 

Chesapeake Bay Foundation 

Citizens Committee on the Chesapeake Bay 

Conservation Council of Virginia 

Conservation Foundation, The 

Federated Garden Clubs of Virginia 

Garden Club of Virginia, The 

Izaak Walton League (local chapters) 

Junior League (local chapters) 

Kent Conservation, Inc. 

League of Women Voters (state chapters) 

Maryland Environmental Trust 

Maryland Wetlands Committee 

Maryland Wildlands Committee 

National Campers and Hikers Association 

National Wildlife Federation (state chapters) 



-9- 



Nacure Conservancy, The 

Northern Virginia Conservation Council 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences 

Potomac River Association of St. Mary's County 

Sierra Club (local chapters) 

Talbot County Historical Society 

Virginia Society of Ornithology 

Wilderness Society, The 

Wye Institute 



MARYLAND 



Maryland State Department of Natural Resources 

Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs 

Departments of Forests and Parks 

Fish and Wildlife Administration 
Maryland Natural Resources Institute 

Chesapeake Biological Lab (Solomon's Island), 

University of Maryland 
Maryland State Department of Planning 



VIRGINIA 



Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries 

Commission of Outdoor Recreation 

Virginia Institute of Marine Science 

Virginia State Department of Conservation and Economic Development 



FEDERAL 



Department of Commerce 

National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA 
Department of Defense 

Air Force 

Army (Baltimore District, Corps of Engineers) 

Navy 
Department of tlie Interior 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

U.S. Geological Survey (and CARETS program) 

National Park Service 
Smithsonian Institution 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 



UNIVERSITIES 



American University 
Georgetown University 
Johns Hopkins University 
Old Dominion University 
University of Maryland 



10- 



Several organizations, such as the Audubon Naturalist Society 
of the Central Atlantic States, the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, the 
Maryland Ornithology Society and the Virginia Society of Ornithology, 
assisted the project staff on a voluntary basis by soliciting infor- 
mation and recommendations from their members who are directly familiar 
with the Chesapeake Bay area. Volunteers assisted in contacting other 
private groups, local officials, and individuals to obtain more 
detailed information on specific areas. 

Staff 

The staff of the survey all worked part-time; the total combined 
effort amounted to about three man-years. The survey staff and 
consultants were: Dale W. Jenkins, Ph.D., Director of the Ecology 
Program and principal investigator. Special consultants: 
Anne LaBastille, Ph.D., wildlife ecologist; Richard W. Wagner, Ph.D., 
Ecologist; Clyde Reed, Ph.D., Botanist; Edward F. Rivinus, M.A. , 

Ornithologist . 

Mr. Stephen L. Keiley, MBA, Director of the Center for Natural 
Areas. Fonda R. Hivick, M.A. , Botanist, Russell Kologiski, B.S., 
Botanist, and Gary S. Waggoner, M.A. , Ecologist, were involved in data 
gathering and evaluation. Interpretation and cartography were completed 
by Luis Calvo, Cartographer; David Kunhardt, B.A. , Administrative 
Assistant; Bryan Thompson, MLA, Landscape Architecture; David Vreeland, 
B.S., Geographer, and J. Copperidge Wilson, B.S., Zoologist. Secretar- 
ial and clerical: Fay Davis, Willa Afshar, Karan Shaffer, Mary Kadziel. 



-u- 

II. PRE SENTLY PROTECTED AND PRESERVED LANDS 

About 941 square miles or over one-half million acres (just over 
240,000 hectares) of land is presently protected in the Chesapeake 
Bay region by virtue of being o\>med either privately or by the federal 
or state governments. These lands may be subject to a variety of human 
activities from landing airplanes to lumbering, fishing, hunting or 
intense recreational uses. So, while they are not subject to unplanned, 
market-dominated real estate development, they are also not necessarily 
preserved in any true sense. In our opinion, these lands should be ana- 
lyzed in greater depth and ranked according to the ecological criteria 
set forth in this report. Those found of prime value should then be so 
designated and action should be taken to change their management status 
to assure their protection in perpetuity. Such an analysis was not 
within the scope of this survey, on the grounds that these lands are, 
at the very least, protected from development and thus not as threatened 
as the others that formed the bulk of the survey. 

A number of areas within the region are preserved, in the sense 
that damaging use or development is largely ruled out. These include 
seven National Wildlife Refuges plus seventeen other areas, some of 
them state parks or refuges and others being privately owned (and 
listed In [jublished reports as natural areas, research natural areas 
or natural landmarks). 

None of these protected or preserved areas were actively investi- 
gated uy us. They were, however, depicted on a 1:250,000 scale map 
with appropriate coding to show different categories of ownership and 



-12- 

raaiiagement . This information Is summarized in Table 2 and explained 
in the text which follows. It is interesting to note that already 
protected and preserved land in the region amounts to 7.5% of the 
entire study area. For a detailed listing of all these areas, consult 
Appendix E. 



TABLE 2. PRESENTLY PROTECTED AREAS OF CHESAPEAKE BAY 



Ownership 
FEDERAL 



Number of Sites Acres 



Hectares 



1 



Military 

National Wildlife Refuges' 

Other 



43 


266,000 


107,500 


8 


32,400 


13,100 


20 


56,200 


22,700 



STATE 



Forests 
Parks 

Wildlife Management Areas- 
Other 

PRIVATE OR QUASI-PUBLIC 



5 


20,750 


8,380 


36 


56,760 


22,930 


30 


78,700 


31,800 


26 


80,600 


32,570 



10,770 



4,350 



Total 602,200 243,300 



The hectare is a unit of area in the metric system. One hectare equals 
10,000 square meters or 2.471 acres. There are approximately 258 
hectares per square mile. 

"Includes some land not in the N.W.R. system but administered by the 
U. S. Department of Interior's Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 



Includes some land not in the W.M.A. systems but held with identical 
management practices. Also includes Virginia Natural Areas. 



-iJ- 



Protected Federal Lands 



Military Lands . The Department of Defense has more public pro- 
tected land in the Bay region than other Federal agencies. Topographic 
maps show that much military land is undeveloped forests, marshlands, 
and shorelines. Nine of the forty-three reservations and installations 
listed below contain or are directly adjacent to what we later 
determined to be valuable natural areas: 



Name 

Aberdeen Proving Grounds (Army) 
Fort George G. Meade (Army) 
Navy Propellant Plant 
Cedar Neck Naval Research Lab 
Fort Belvoir (Army) 
Dahlgren Weapons Lab (Navy) 
Fort Eustis Military Reservation 
Plum Tree Island Bombing Range 
U. S. Navy Transmitter Station 



Location 






Hectares 


Harford Co. , 


Md. 




13,445 


Anne Arundel 


Co., 


Md. 


5,252 


Charles Co. , 


Md. 




889 


Charles, Md. 






566 


Fairfax, Va. 






2,707 


King George, 


Va. 




1,495 


Newport News 


City, 


, Va. 


2,304 


York, Va. 






1,212 


Nansemond Co. 


. , Va. 




323 




28,193 



Four reservations enclose more than two-thirds of the total mili- 
tary acreage in the Bay region with a diversity of land-use potential! 



Name 

Aberdeen Proving Grounds (Army) 
Fort George G. Meade (Army) 
Quant ico 'larine Corps Schools 

A. P. Hill Military Reservation 



Location Hectares 

Harford Co. , Md. 13,445 

Anne Arundel Co., Md. 5,252 

Prince William & 25,048 

Stafford Go's. , Va. 

Caroline 28,967 



72,712 



-14- 



Pub] Lc hunting and risliiiig is allowed in parts of some areas, such 
as Quantico and A. P. Hill reservations. The Department of Defense has 
created directives for the use of land and the services have shown an 
increasing sensitivity to ecological concerns (as evidenced by the Air 
Force effort to set ecologically sound management practices at their 
bases) . 

National Wildlife Refuges and Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife Land . Seven National Wildlife Refuges (N.W.R.) are in some- 
what remote and naturally well-protected locations in the Bay. An 
eighth area was designated by both the Society of American Foresters 
and the Federal Committee on Research Natural Areas as a valuable 
natural area: the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. These refuges 
constitute some of the better protected natural areas in the Bay. 



Name 

Susquehanna N.W.R. 

Eastern Neck N.W.R. 

Blackwater N.W.R. 

Martin N.W.R. 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 

Mason Neck N.W.R. 
Presquile N.W.R. 
Fisherman's Island N.W.R. 



Location 

Harford Co. , Md. 

Kent Co. , Md. 
Dorchester Co. , Md. 
Somerset Co. , Md. 
Anne Arundel & Prince 

George' s Co. , Md. 
Fairfax Co. , Va. 
Chesterfield 
Northampton Co. , Va. 



Hectares 



1.5 land 
4,050 water 

923 
4,531 
1,786 

287 
580 
536 
404 



13,100 



Other Federally - Own ed and Admin ister e d Open Space . This class of 
land includes National Parks, a National Forest, and various other 
Federal areas. The parks range from the 3,810-hectare Colonial National 



-15- 

Historical Park of James City, Virginia, to the 35.5-hectare Theodore 
Roosevelt Island Memorial Park in the Potomac River at Washington, 
D. C. The fifteen parks have a total of approximately 9,211 hectares. 
Three of the parks, Theodore Roosevelt Island, the George Washington 
Memorial Parkway, and Colonial National Historical Park, contain 
marshland that is considered valuable natural land. Their prime 
function, however, is for tourists who seek historical and recreational 
establishments; conservation regulations are limited. 

The Prince William Forest Park in Prince William County, Virginia 
is the only National Forest in the region. It covers 7,353 hectares 
and has moderate recreational use. 

Other federal lands include the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Research Station in Prince George's County which has over 3,878 
hectares of land; and the Pamunkey Indian Reservation in King William 
County, Virginia which includes valuable wetlands and wildlife in its 
404 hectares. 

Protected State and Local Lands 

State Forests . Five state forests in the Bay region in Maryland 
total approximately 8,400 hectares. The largest is the new and still 
growing Pocomoke State Forest in Worcester County. Tt has 5,600 hectares 
of land along and near the Pocomoke River. The state has designated the 
Pocomoke a Scenic River, and will .-xpand forests and local parks along 
its banks. These state forests enjoy good protection with some 
restrictions on their use, but their numbers are few and none has been 



-16- 



established near the Bay in Virginia. The proper officials in each 
state should be contacted to ascertain state plans for further use 
and development of the forest systems. 

State, local and regional parks . The park system in each state 
administers various historical, recreational and natural lands of 
several types. This category probably contains the widest variety of 
land uses. Only in the last five or six years has there been an 
official recognition of the need to preserve certain sites as Natural 
Areas rather than as recreation sites or camping grounds. Of the 
20,000 hectares of parkland in 36 parks, we recommend that approximate- 
ly 3,500 hectares within the following seven parks should be maintained 
in their natural state. More details of the sites recommended are 
shown on marked topographic maps in the Center for Natural Areas. 



Name Location 

Susquehanna State Park Harford Co. , Md. 

Severn Run Natural Envir. Area Anne Arundel Co. , Md. 

Wye Oak State Park Talbot Co., Md. 

Patuxent River State Park Prince George's Co., Md. 

Shad Landing State Park Worcester Co. , Md. 

Chippokes Plantation State Park Surry Co. , Va. 

Seashore State Park Virginia Beach Co. , Va. 



[ectares 




646 




640 




9 


1 


,212 




220 




404 


1 


,050 



4,181 



Wildlife Management Areas . The State of Maryland has 20,000 
hectares of Bay region land in its Wildlife Management System. The 
Commonweath of Virginia, in both its Wildlife Management-/and Natural- 
Areas Systems, has 3,393 hectares in the Bay region. These systems 
include some lands not owned by the states but administered by them 



•17- 



under easement agreements. Public hunting is allowed in regulated 
seasons. In this category are some of the very large prime wetlands 
of the Eastern Shore of the Bay (some 14,000 hectares on the shore of 
four counties). These areas are more isolated and less used than the 
majority of the parks: most if not all of them can be considered 
valuable potential natural areas. 

Other State, Regional and Local Lands . About 13,770 hectares of 
land and water have been categorized as undeveloped land. The greater 
part of this area, 10,630 hectares, consists of state and city reser- 
voirs. Among the remainder are four tracts containing interesting 
natural areas : 



Name 

Crownsville State Hospital 
Eastern State Hospital 

Reservation 
Salt Ponds and Northend Point 

Natural Preserve 
Elko Tract 



Location 

Anne Arundel Co. , Md. 
James City Co., Va. 

Hampton City, Va. 

Henrico Co. , Va. 



Hectares 

384 
202 

303 

808 



1,697 



Private and Quasi-Publ i c Properties . Privately protected lands, 
conservation easements, and holdings by small conservation-minded 
groups are not all compiled here. The Chesapeake Bav lands of the 
NaCure Conservancy and the Smithsonian Institution are plotted on map i. 
The .Nature Conservancy's lands are well protected natural areas. Two 
properties which might be considered as preserves because of their 
prime natural value are: 



-18- 



Name - Location Hectares 

Camp Rodney Scout Reservation Cecil Co. , Md. 414 

Belt Woods (The Episcopal Church) Prince George's Co., Md. 16 



430 



Belt Woods has been nominated by the Center to receive Registered 
Natural Landmark status from the National Park Service because of its 
unique stand of mature hardwoods and large bird population. 

Preserv ed Natural Areas 

The designation of preserved natural areas is difficult when deal- 
ing with state-owned lands since there are different types of preserva- 
tion and protection. State and federal forests preserve flora and 
fauna but are subject to cutting, management and "multiple use." State 
and federal parks have much human use and are subject to management and 
partial development for recreation. The status of state and Federal 
wildlife management areas and refuges also varies inasmuch as they pre- 
serve wildlife and flora but are subject to changing management policies. 

There are 17 sites which may be considered as designated natural 
areas, but this list should be considered as very tentative since some 
of the areas may not qualify as fully preserved natural areas. 

The Nature Conservancy sites, the Natural Landmark areas, and the 
Smithsonian Institution areas can be considered as preserved natural 
areas. The State of Virginia has designated three natural areas — 
Charles C. Steirly Natural Area, Parkers Marsh Natural Area, and 
Seashore Natural Area and these are fully preserved. The latter is 
also a state park with some tourist facilities and use. 



-19- 



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-20- 



li. DEFCNING THP: NATURAL AREAS 



To a slum-dweller a natural area could be a quarter-acre 
park; to an accomplished hiker, the term might not be served by 
anything less than a 1,000 square-mile primeval wilderness. As 
varied as the definitions of 'natural area' are the uses to which 
humans put such areas. For the purposes of this survey, a rather 
stringent definition was assumed, for the task was to identify 
natural areas with demonstrable, intrinsic ecological value. 

Under such stringent definition, as we were well aware, many 
valuable features of the landscape are omitted from consideration. 
No definition of an ecosystem can escape the fact that an ecosystem 
is not a self-contained unit with definable limits. Plant life, 
for example, depends on a host of features — geological, climatic 
and so forth. And geologists may well find their most valued 
areas given short shrift in this survey. Archeologists and 
historians, as well as recreation planners, certainly will. 

The definition of a natural area to be judged in this survey 
is: an area of land or water where natural ecosvstem processes 
operate relatively undisturbed and where natural biological 
communities, their interactions, structures and functions can be 
studied. This is somewhat more restrictive a definition than that 
used by the "Catalog of Natural Areas in Maryland" published by 
that state's planning department. It is more precise, though not 
necessarily more to the point, than another definition of natural 
areas: "That which is His, not ours." 



-21- 



Altogether, using the ecological criteria outlined in this 
section, the survey identified 232 sites to be considered natural 
areas — a total potential land area of 138,319 hectares, or 4.2% of 
the entire study area. 

The major types of natural areas of the Bay region are as 
follows : 

a. Primeval Area. Areas which preserve examples of signifi- 
cant species of plants and animals. These wilderness areas should 
remain natural and unchanged by direct human influences, except in 
cases of successional communities which may require management to 
maintain them. They may have limited monitoring as remote 
"primitive"or "benchmark" areas. 

b. Gene Pool Preserve. Special preserves for rare and 
endangered species of plants and animals requiring complete 
protection and, often, surrounding buffer zones. 

c. Research Natural Area. Ecological research areas where 
natural processes are allowed to predominate and which are 
preserved primarily for research. Human use and collection is 
limited and non-destructive. They can also be used as "benchmark," 
"baseline," or "check" areas for monitoring environmental change. 

d. Manipulative Research Area. Areas where research mav 
modify an area to understand its function and permit better 
ecological prediction and management. 

e. Educational Natural Area. Areas used to teach students 
and the public, and which may be used for minor research projects. 
Some development of human facilities and trails or access routes 
are usually needed. 



-22- 



The management of such natural areas would, as implied above, 
varv with Che type, use and value of the area in question. The 
uses and values are several, and include: 

E sthetic enjoyment . There is ultimately an esthetic value 
that urges the preservation of the best examples of the various 
types of plant and animal communities. Beyond that, one can say 
without being didactic that preserving such examples can only 
improve the national conscience and thus help prevent the mindless 
destruction of this part of our national heritage for future 
generations. 

Baseline and long-term monitoring of environmental quality . 
Natural areas allow collection of essential baseline monitoring 
data to study trends and changes in populations, levels of 
pollutants and the effects of man's disturbance. 

Study of the structure and function of natural ecosystems . 
Rational decisions on development and management of our environ- 
ment depend on theoretical understanding of the natural environ- 
ment. Integrated systems analysis and development of ecological 
models require detailed studies of natural areas to develop a 
predictive ecological capability. 

Preservation of germ plasm reservoirs, gene pools, and 
endangered species . Natural areas preserve the genetic stock of 
organisms needed by man for new or improved strains of economic 
and survival value to society in agriculture, horticulture, 
silviculture, mariculture, medicine and other areas. Rapid 



-23- 



development and change of the world requires use of new strains 
of species with different adaptations. Threatened endangered 
species and natural communities once lost are gone forevermore. 

E ducational and training value . Natural areas are outdoor 
laboratories for complex research investigation as well as living 
museums where students and the public can observe nature first- 
hand. In some natural areas, manipulation of the environment is 
studied to show the impact of man's technology. 

Contribution to environmental quality . Natural areas may 
act as ecological buffers to modulate the environment, helping in 
flood control, aquifer recharge and breeding areas for hunting, 
sport, and commercially important organisms. Natural areas maintain 
an environment which supports diversity and variety of individual 
choices. 

When faced with the urgent need to make choices, one must 
choose with a combination of whatever scientific information and 
experiential judgment is available and thus decide what are the 
salient features to emphasize. The word 'value' has been used 
often in this report and it will be used many times again. The 
values of the Center for Natural Areas are, at the very least. 
Implicit in what follows. 

There is an enormous amount of accumulated information about 
the Chesapeake Bay Region — in scientific and popular literature, 
from unpublished sources such as knowledgeable biologists and 
conservatlonlsta, and from the biological collections of various 



-24- 



museums. It Is altogether likely that some of this information is 
outdated, given the rapid rate of habitat modification taking place 
in the region, and ideally all this information should be rechecked, 
especially in the case of data about wetlands, coastal areas and 
islands. 

At the same time, from the standpoint of making an ecological 
survey, there are great gaps in our knowledge. It is not always 
known, for example, what the correlation is between plant communi- 
ties of various sorts and the niches of some animals, especially 
migratory ones. Nor is it always kno^^m what the tolerances of 
various plants and animals are to various changes in environmental 
quality. Faced with such gaps, the Center for Natural Areas was 
forced to rely on several traditional sets of parameters in classi- 
fying and ranking the natural areas of this vast region. 

Impor t ant Biotic Communities 
No natural ecosystem, even a simplified version such as a plant 
community, is discreet. All are bounded by gradients (ecotones) 
where the species characteristic of one habitat are gradually 
replaced by those of another. At its upper edge a salt marsh 
merges into a freshwater marsh which in turn passes without break 
into the forest on its edge. Only men make maps with lines on 
them, but such map lines— and categories — are necessary. The 
Chesapeake Bay region is rich in the categories of biotic 



-25- 



communities and, as dlstincLive communities, each type takes on 
an ecological value based on abundance, diversity, productivity, 
and other factors described later. 

What follows is a brief taxonomy of the region's key 
ecosystems. The typical plants present in each ecosystem are 
mentioned, along with associated animals. Appendix B gives a more 
complete description of each ecosystem type, with more varieties 
of plants and animals, including the scientific nomenclature. 

Salt '-larsh or Brackish Tidal Marsh . This type of biotic 
community is flooded periodically, the period depending on the 
elevation of the marsh. The classic low marsh, flooded twice 
daily, is characterized by the ecologically important salt-marsh 
cordgrass, v/hlch serves as a base for many complex foodchains. 
The frequency of low marsh increases from north south in the Bay, 
particularly on the eastern shore. The flushing action of the 
tides is essential to the low marsh community, bringing in both 
fishes and nutrients and flushing out wastes. Tidal creeks 
meander through the salt marsh, rich in silt and organic debris 
from inland runoff, which provide additional nutrient supplv. 

High salt marsh is flooded only irregularly ,* and is composed 
of associations of grasses, rushes and sedges such as salt grass, 
saltmeadow cordgrass, black needlerush, glass'vort, etc. Typical 
animals of both low and high salt marshes include: horseshoe, 
fiddler and marsh crabs; several species of snails, mussels and , 
snakes; mallard, pintail and black ducks; sparrows, hawks and 



-26- 



herons; opposum, shrews, voles, rats, raccoons, and many other 
animals. 

Freshwater Marsh . \:fhile freshwater marshes are more 
abundant toward the head of the Bay where the water is virtually 
fresh, they are also found upstream in almost every tributary 
stream in the Bay. A great diversity of plants is distributed 
in these marshes in response to variations in depth of water and 
salinity. The most important representative species include 
three-square, cattail, wild rice, common reed, and arrowhead. 
Also often occurring are varieties of rushes, sedges, and alder. 

Corresponding with the high diversity of plant life, there 
is also a high diversity of animal life, including: salamanders, 
toads, many varieties of frogs, turtles, and snakes; herons, mallards, 
bald eagles, hawks and osprey; moles, beaver, muskrat and fox. 

Bogs . Rather limited in size and distribution, bogs differ 

significantly from swamps and marshes. Bogs are so acid that 

biomass accumulates in their basins in the form of peat rather 

than decomposing and being recycled in the system as is more 

often the case in marshes and swamps. Bogs have a cushion-like 

surface layer of vegetation dominated by mosses. Also found is 
» 

buckbean, cotton grass, numerous sedges, cranberry, and bog 
rosemary. A variety of unusual plants are found in bogs, 
including pitcher plant, baldderworts, orchids, sundews, and 
highbu'^h blueberry. It is not unusual to find certain pine, 
maple and gum trees in and around bogs. The animal species of 



-27- 



bogs would generally be those of che surrounding ecosystems, 
such as quail, turkey, woodcock and warbler. One rare species 
found here would be the bog turtle. 

Ponds. Both fresh- and saltwater ponds occur in the region. 
Salt ponds contain many of the species found in shallow marine 
habitats, but ditch grass is most characteristic. Freshwater 
ponds have a wide range of species: submerged aquatics such as 
tape grass, water milfoil, and bladderwort, and emergent species 
including arrowhead and pickerel weed. 

Cypress-Gum Swamp Fores r. The distribution of the Cypress- 
Gum Swamp Forest reaches its northern limits in the Chesapeake 
Bay region, where some of the species typical of the Bottomland 
Hardwood Forest give way in deeper water to the dominance of the 
baldcypress and the water tupelo. Typical animals include such 
birds as the double crested cormorant, the common egret, black 
crowned night heron, red shouldered hawk, barred owl, and 
pileated woodpecker. Such mammals as the gray fox, raccoon, 
mink, river otter, and even the black bear, bobcat and white-tailed 
deer also appear. 

Bottomland Hardwo od Forest . This community type is one of 
the most diverse terrestrial plant communities in the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain. It occupies the floodplalns of the major rivers, 
and is often flooded in winter and spring with either lower water 
levels or no standing water in summer and fall. Phe vegetation 
Is mostly trees ^th some shrubs and vines. The hardwoods in swamp 



-28- 



forests are black gum, red maple, tupelo, swamp poplar, various 
oaks, sweet gum, and sweet bay. The more mature bottomland forests 
may have beech, oaks and elms. In the smaller floodplains of the 
northern sections of the Bay, the dominant species are: beech, 
river birch, sycamore, box elder, and silver maple. 

Animal species are also quite abundant in bottomland forests, 
due to the presence of a large supply of foods. Typical animals 
include: salamanders, toads, frogs, turtles, snakes, ducks, hawk, 
turkey, woodcock, woodpeckers, warblers, and cardinals. The list 
of mammals occurring here is much the same as those of the cypress- 
gum swamp forest, and should also include the opossum, eastern 
cottontail, squirrels, and beaver. 

Pine Flatwoods . Loblolly and pitch pine dominate the coastal 
flatwoods, with loblolly pine particularly important in Virginia 
and pitch pine dominant in Maryland. The pine flatwoods are 
generally rather open with an incomplete canopy, and often have a 
diverse shrub and herb zone. These forests may be successional, 
and thus will eventually be naturally replaced by an upland hard- 
wood forest. Some frequently found animals are the pine woods tree 
frog, fence lizard, cornsnake, hawks, quail, several woodpecker 
varieties, the pine warbler, pine woods sparrow, meadowlark, 
towhee, and pine mouse. 

Upland Hardwood Forest . This is the climax forest of the 
upland parts of the region, and is dominated by various species 
of oak. Other mixed hardwoods including blackgum, hickories. 



-29- 



beech, sweetgum, magnolia and dogwood, are found in the uplands. 
Animals of the upland hardwood forest range from several species 
of salamander, skink and snake to the long-tailed weasel and the 
striped skunk. Birds typically found include hawks, owls, and 
woodpeckers, the ruby throated hummingbird, flycatchers, crows, 
jays, warblers, and vireos. Mammals commonly occurring are 
shrews, voles, mice, chipmunks, squirrels, raccoon, and deer. 

Old Field Community . This is a very common community type 
which develops on abandoned lands, particularly agricultural lands. 
Many species of grasses, wildf lowers, weeds, vines and briars are 
among the first to invade old fields. Next to arrive are plants 
like broorasedge, which can completely dominate the community within 
a few years. Not long after, sweetgum and pines begin to grov/, and 
the old field can progress into a pine forest or eventually a 
hardwood forest. Common animal species found during the early 
stages of old field succession are savanna-, grasshopper- and 
field sparrows, and snakes and hawks which feed on the shrews, 
moles, voles, and mice which are so prevalent. 

Dune Communities . Maritime Shrub Thickets , and Maritime 
Forests occur in the Chesapeake Bay region, but mostly on the Atlantic 
side of the DelMarVa peninsula and they are therefore not included 
in this study. 



-30- 
Rar e and Endangered Animals 

Many of our plant and animal species are being destroyed by man's 
developmental activities, by overgrazing, fire, introduced exotic 
species and diseases, and particularly destruction of habitats. Some 
of these species are of national significance, some are important as 
gene pools for food and fiber producers, as pharmaceuticals, or are of 
unknown potential use to humans. For many species, preservation of 
critical habitats as natural areas is sufficient to preserve the 
species from extinction. Other species require special laws to 
prevent hunting, picking or collecting. 

At present, the species of endangered vertebrate animals are 
fairly well known. The enormous numbers of invertebrate animal 
species are less known and many have not even been described to 
science and have completely unknown status. (Certain species of 
endangered molluscs, butterflies, and a few other groups of inverte- 
brates are presently fairly well known.) Most preservation efforts 
for endangered animal species are limited to the relatively small 
number of the larger and more obvious and interesting species. People 
tend to identify with vertebrates more than with invertebrates; they 
even choose them as symbols. 

In the Chesapeake Bay region there are at least four species of 
vertebrate animals that are rare or endangered. This includes the 
southern bald eagle, the DelMarVa fox squirrel, the Maryland darter 
and the bog turtle. They are discussed below along with the osprey 
which is rapidly declining, but not yet in the endangered category. 



-31- 

The southern bald eagle (Hal iaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus ) 
was once verv abundant in the Chesapeake Bay region. In 1936 there 
were over 250 active nests throughout the Delaware, Virginia and 
Maryland areas. Today, around 90 nests, not all active in any given 
year, can be found in the same area. Not only have the number of 
nesting eagles declined but there has been a shift from the upper parts 
of rivers and the northern part of the Bay to the estuarine segments 
of the rivers and the southern bay. Despite pesticide-induced shell 
thinning (recorded for a number of birds of prey including fish 
predators such as the cormorant and bro^-m pelican), the major cause 
of eagle mortality continues to be shooting, pollution of feeding 
areas, and loss of habitat to various forms of development). Even 
though the eagle population has declined by at least 60% in the 
last 10 years, the Chesapeake Bay region is the most productive area 
north of Florida for southern subspecies of bald eagle. The prognosis 
is not good, however, since the reproductive rate, 5-35%, is 
considerably below that necessary for a stable population. 

The DelMarVa fox squirrel, also known as the Bryant fox squirrel 
( Sciurus niger cinereus ) , is a subspecies of the more widespread 
eastern fox squirrel. Never very abundant or widespread in its range, 
Che Del'-larVa fox squirrel is confined today to four eastern shore 
counties in Maryland: Kent, Queen Anne, Talbot, and Dorchester. The 
population apparently lies somewhere between 500 and 1500 Individuals. 
Although protected in Maryland since 1971, this species Is easily 
confused with the more abundant eastern gray squirrel Sciurus 



-32- 

caro linens is and many are probably killed during the hunting season. 
Continued reduction of habitat by real estate developments and 
cutting of the old-aged, mixed pine-hardwood stands which are the 
prime habitat, have doubtless contributed to population decline as well. 

The Maryland darter ( Etheostoma s ellare ) is a small and rather 
nondescript fish found in only two streams, Deer Creek and the east 
branch of Swan Creek, both tributaries of the Susquehanna in Harford 
County, Maryland. While the population size is unknown, it is assumed 
because of the very limited habitat to be rather small. Since the 
species appears to be endemic at the periphery of the range of its 
closest relatives, it has not been abundant for rather a long time. 

The bog turtle (Clem mys muhlenbergi ) as its name suggests, is 
limited to wetland areas in the northeast and the southern Appala- 
chians. Because of its rather secretive behavior its numbers are 
difficult to determine. Its decline can be inferred both from the 
destruction of its rather limited habitat and the high value placed 
on it by pet shops because of its scarcity. It has been protected 
in Maryland, the only state in the Bay region where it occurs, since 
1972. 

The osprey ( Pandion halia e tus ) is not an endangered species, but 
populations are declining in many places along the east coast — an 
example of a rare, declining, or depleted species. Annual production 
to guarantee replacement for a stable population has been estimated 
at between 0.95 and 1.30 young fledged per breeding female. In only 
a few parts of the Bay is this figure reached every year. Despite 



-33- 



Lhe decline, Lhe Bay region has the highest concentration of nesting 
osprey in the United States — roughly estimated at 1400 pairs in 
1972 and 1100 in 1973. Reasons for the decline, where observed, seem 
similar to those responsible for the southern bald eagle decline. 

The abundance and distribution of most invertebrate animal 
species is in general poorly known except for certain pests or 
commercially important species. The Washington, D. C. area has been 
the site of extensive biological study so that many type localities 
exist where species have been described. For many species, this is 
the only known information as the species may never have been collected 
again. It is important to determine the rarity or endangered status 
of these species with specialized field studies. 

Two species of rare and endangered Crustacea are known from the 
Chesapeake Bay region: 

Hay's Spring scud ( Stygonectes hayi ) is a blind white crustacean 
known only from a single spring in Washington, D. C. and threatened 
by urbanization and groundwater pollution. Once widespread, it is 
now greatly restricted in habitat and has been extensively looked for 
in recent years. 

The Tidewater scud ( Stygonectes i ndentatus ) , a unique interstitial 
crustacean, is limited to several groundwater seeps in Nansemond 
County, Virginia, and is threatened by groundwater pollution throughout 
itH range and by suburban sprawl. It is a primitive member of the 
genus and is believed to live in the ancestral habitat that once was 



■34- 



characteristic of the genus. It has been sought but not found else- 
where in the tidewater area. 

Rare and Endangered Plants 

The rare and endangered plants of the Chesapeake Bay region had 
never been compiled before this survey and no list existed. Plant 
distribution and abundance is much less known (except for certain 
trees) than for vertebrate animals. Many plant records are from old 
records in herbaria, often with vague locality dat , and the plant 
species may no longer exist. 

Major disruption of habitats due to agriculture, lumbering, and 
introduction of exotic weeds has resulted in enormous changes, 
driving many species close to extinction. 

An extensive survey of the literature, consulting with 
specialists, and examination of herbaria (U. S. National Museum of 
Natural History, Harvard Gray Herbarium, Clyde Reed Herbarium) 
resulted in a preliminary list of 23 species of plants which are 
reported to be rare and endemic. Of these, about 15 species may be 
considered endangered. The total population of the local and endemic 
seaside alder ( Alnus maritima) occurs in only four counties in the 
Bay area, but it is not endangered or threatened. 



-35- 



Much more field work and collecting is necessary to validate 
the exact present status of each species of rare and restricted 
plant. Extensive field work is required to prove whether or not 
certain plant species have become extinct. 

Range Phenomena 

Plant and animal species usually have distinct areas where 
the major populations occur. But at the edges of the range there 
may be outliers or disjunct populations which may have developed 
taxonomic or other differences if they have been isolated for some 
time. They may include both new endemic or old relict populations 
of scientific importance and often need protection. At the edges 
of ranges, species may be rare and require protection. 

Because of its position halfway up the Atlantic Coastal Plain, 
the Bay region includes many edges of ranges or outlying disjunct 
populations. 

Northern Limit . Many species with an essentially southern 
distribution extend into the Bay region; e.g., longleaf pine 
( Pinus palustris ) and water tupelo ( Nyssa aguatica ) . 

Northern Outlier . Some southern species have disjunct 
populations, often just a few individuals, well iiorlli of lIk- contig- 
uous populations: e.g., bald cypress ( Taxodium distichum ), v;nter 
hickory ( Carya aguatica ), overcup oak ( Quercus lyrata ) , and live oak 
( Que re us virglniana ) . 



-•36- 



Soutliorii Limit . Essen L i .1 1 I y northern species whose 
southernmost distribution extends into the Bay region: e.g., 
black ash ( Fraxinus nigra ) . 

Southern Outlier . Populations in the Bay region that are 
disjunct from the southern continuous populations to the 
north: e.g., balsam poplar ( Populus balsamifera ) . 

East e rn Outlier . Species whose distribution is primarily 
midwestern extend eastward as disjunct outliers: e.g. chinkapin 
oak ( Quercus muehlenbergii ) , shumard oak (Quercus shumardi) , and bur 
oak ( Quercus macrocarpa ) . 

Coastal Plain Outlier . Upland species characteristic of the 
Appalachians are occasionally found in small colonies deep in the 
coastal plain over a hundred miles from the nearest upland popula- 
tion; e.g., white pine ( Pinus strobus ), hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) , 
and rhododendron ( Rhododendron maximum ) . 

Regardless of their nature, these populations are of far 
greater importance than as mere geographical curiosities. Any 
organisms living on the edge of its range is operating at the limit 
of its adaptation to Its environment as well, and it may be parti- 
cularly sensitive to environmental stresses with which it can cope 
in the center of the range. If we are to understand the ecological 
amplitude of any species, it must be studied under extreme conditions 
as well as optimal ones. For this reason, a few acres of scraggly 
hemlocks on the eastern shore may be worth a hundred acres on the 
Blue Ridge. These range phenomena have been located as precisely 



-37- 



as records allow, and they enter importantly into the natural area 
selection process. 

Various species are restricted or endemic to the region and 
are of particular ecological s Lgnif icance. Most of these endemic 
species are rare and endangered. Some endemic species such as 
seaside alder (Alnus maritima ) are restricted and local, but not yet 
in the category of endangered or threatened. If these species are 
locally exterminated, it will result in the worldwide loss of the 
species. 

Seasonal Concentration of Animals 
l>niile endangered, rare, and uncommon species are critically 
important and figure strongly in the selection of desirable natural 
areas, the most striking feature of Bay wildlife is the seasonal 
concentration of various species. There are three major groups: 
overwintering species, seasonal breeders, and migratory stopovers. 

Overwinteri ng Species . Many Bay area residents, hunters or not, 
eagerly look forward to the October arrival of noisy skeins 
of geese and ducks followed later by whistling swans. By April, the 
old-squaw, canvasback, mergansers, Canada geese, and swans have 
returned to their northern breeding places, but their economic and 
ecologlc impact is considerable. Unlike the endangered species 
which tend to stay put, ovcrwi tit cr i ng species frequently move about 
on tlioir overwintering grounds and have fvon adapted new habits as 
old food supplies disappear and new ones appear. 



-38- 



'I'he swan, Cy^nus columb Lanu.q , which as recently as a few 
years ago fed offshore in shallow water while the less wary 
geese flew inland to feed on stubble fields, have now begun to 
emulate the habits of geese and can be seen in flocks of several 
hundred on fields far from open water. This may be due in part 
to a decrease in the supply of food offshore resulting from 
increased turbidity and pollution. Nevertheless, it is difficult 
to anticipate in which bay or river the overwintering species will 
concentrate from year to year. 

Setting aside natural areas to accommodate overwintering 
species is not practical unless the areas are specifically managed 
for waterfowl, and such management may then interfere with other 
uses or values of a given area. Even so, unusual concentrations 
of overwintering waterfowl have been noted and considered as a 
criterion for natural areas selection. 

Seasonal Br eed ers . Various species of animals concentrate 
in certain areas to reproduce. This is particularly true of many 
migratory species of birds and fish and for some mammals and 
amphibia. Birds nesting in certain areas, e.g., heronries and sea 
bird nesting sites, may result in very high seasonal populations. 
Spawning fish, especially anadromous species, concentrate in 
selected areas during reproduction periods. In Chesapeake Bay, 
striped bass ( Morone saxatilis ) , herring ( Alosa aestivalis ) , 
hickory shad ( Alosa mediocris ) , white shad and American shad 
( Alosa sapidissima ) ascend freshwater streams to breed, many in 



-•59- 



lary;e --iiough quantities to bu of commercial value. The striped 
bass is of course a highly regarded sport fish as well. The 
importance of small tributary streams as breeding areas and their 
attendant marshes as nurseries for the subsequent fry has been 
considered in assessing natural area value. 

Wood duck nesting concentrations have been noted (in the 
study's computer print-out) where information was available. 
This species, considered endangered 30-40 years ago, has made an 
astonishing come-back. Tlic wood duck ( Aix sponsa ) declined as the 
old trees which had proper nesting cavities were logged off and 
younger trees cut before reaching proper size. Artificial nesting 
sites have helped the wood duck to become relatively common again. 
Since the male is one of the most beautifully marked birds in 
North American, nesting data was included in the natural areas 
evaluations. 

Heronries are present in the Bay region, mostly of the great 
blue heron ( Ardea herodias ) but other types of heronries are found 
too — green heron ( Butoridcs virescens ) , black-crowned night heron 
(Nyctocorax nycticorax ). and American egret ( Casmerodius albus ) . 
At the present about 30 active heronries have been plotted on Map 2, 
although others probably exist. 

Migratory stopovers . Cormin areas such as peninsulas and 
islands are utilized by shorfbi rd.s, birds of prry, .ind passerines 
passing north or south during migrations. The birds pause to feed 
and rest for a few days before resuming tlicir migratory flights. 



-40- 



Whenever possible, such areas were located and considered in 
selecting natural areas. 

Commercial Game and Unusual Animal Populations 
It is important to provide protected areas for wild game, 
fish, and shellfish where the populations are protected from over- 
exploitation. These areas should include breeding areas where 
populations can build up in sufficient numbers to supply the 
populations required for commercial or sport hunting and fishing. 
Game refuges and wildlife management areas are examples of this 
concept. However, a wider distribution of more areas with 
different habitats will insure larger and more widespread 
populations than the relatively few larger wildlife refuges. 
This is particularly important for certain non-game species. 

These protected natural areas are necessary for preservation 
of many fur bearing animals of interest such as otter, beaver, 
mink, bobcat, bear, fox and other animals which most humans are 
happy to occasionally observe in the wild and to know that they 
still exist. These animals plus deer are rarely saen by the 
average person. 

The high point of many vacationers is to have observed some 
of these animals in the wild. Preservation of natural areas assures 
more abundant populations of these animals. A natural area next to 
a park or recreation area enhances the park greatly. 



-41- 



Clam and oyster beds are quite intimately related to both the 
bay or estuary where they are located and the nearby marshes 
which provide the production which the shellfish, in part, 
harvest. Shellfish are sessile as adults and are quite sensitive 
to siltation. Some species such as oysters (Crassostrea vi rginica ) 
lack the siphon that permits clams to be buried by silt. Clams 
are also dependent on detritus from marshes for food, especially 
in the younger stages. Adult crabs (Callinectes s apidus) mav feed 
in turn on smaller detritus feeders. Although crabs are quite 
mobile and migrate during the winter into deeper v;ater near the 
mouth of the Bav , their attraction to certain areas in the 
summer reflects the high productivitv of those areas. These 
places should be identified wherever possible as well as oyster 
bars and clam beds. 

Paleontological Features 
Fossils, mostly of Miocene age (25,000,000 years before 
present), are abundant in many exposed Bay front areas: Calvert 
Cliffs is probably the best known example. The nature of the 
material (snail shells, shark teeth, whale bones) and its age 
give glimpses into thf past continuum of environments leading to 
the present. More than any other geological feature, fossils 
bring home to the general public the meaning of geological 
time. Kossil sites were nlven consideration in this survev, 
but Chey generally included few ecologically valuable features 
and received low ratings. 



-42- 



Strictly geological features and archeological sites v/ere not 
included in this study. In any expansion or subsequent refine- 
ment, they should ideally be included. 

Well-Documented Sites 

An area that has been the subject of continuing scientific 
research, is of great value for it is possible to use the back- 
ground of data to help predict the future and to deepen our 
understanding of the local environment. Such areas were given 
high consideration in the selection of natural areas. 

Plummers Island in the Potomac River above Washington, D. C. 
is the site of many biological surveys and censuses and is the 
type locality site for many species of plants and animals. 
Areas of this type with many years of records and numerous publi- 
cations should be preserved with a high priority. 

Exceptional Individuals or Associations 
Records are often kept for the largest individual of a 
species, such as the Wye Oak, located in the eastern shore area 
of Maryland, which is the largest white oak known. While of 
limited scientific value, these largest and oldest individuals 
are of interest to the public. 

The presence of a virgin (or late successional) stand of 
almost any species of tree is of interest in the eastern United 
States and should be preserved with a high priority. 



-43- 



Associations of species rarely found together are also of 
interest, such as northern mountain species occurring together 
with southern lowland species. This often indicates relict 
conditions such as hemlock and rhododendron isolates and northern 
species left in sphagnum bogs adjacent to southern communities 
of plants. 

Size of Area 

The bigger an area, the greater its diversity of ecosystems, 
ccmnunities and species is likely to be. In smaller isolated 
artas the larger predators which act as regulators are usually 
mis;ing and may require intervention by man to prevent too 
larg? populations of primary herbivores. 

The minimum size required for a natural area has been 
discuised almost endlessly and to halt repetitive debate certain 
arbitriry sizes have been set. The prime function of size as a 
criterii lies in the viability of the ecosystem to be protected. 
This varies greatly depending on the ecosystem. A tenth acre 
bog may le quite defensible with some protecting buffer zone. 
A small area of mountain top or a small island can be preserved 
and maintained with relative ease. In addition, a half acre 
plot of rare tall-^rass prairie in a cemetary or along a railroad 
should be preserved as a natural area. 

On the oiher hand, pine flatland may require over 1,000 
acres to provide examples of the usual species expected in such 
an area. There Is no rulft for determining the minimum size of an 



-A4- 



area to be protected, but 'the larger the better' is the usual 
rule as long as the natural area contains ecologically important 
and significant biota and functions. 

Some natural areas may require a buffer area to prevent 
contamination, silting, or protection from other human inter- 
ferences. Buffer zones may themselves be true natural areas or 
areas with conservation easements to prevent destruction or 
exploitation, hunting and/or fishing, or otherwise to assure 
the protected area's viability. 



-A5- 



IV. RANKING THE AREAS 



On Methods 

For this survey ecological and other data for the region were 
compiled from all available sources including scientific publica- 
tions, popular literature, and from individuals and organizations. 
A questionnaire entitled "Chesapeake Bay Natural Areas Survey" was 
sent to several individuals to ascertain its effectiveness but it 
was found that direct contacts and other sources were more 
effective: the questionnaire was not extensively used. A question- 
naire on rare and endangered species, however, was very productive. 

The data for the region and each proposed site were entered 
onto maps and a data retrieval system was set up to handle non- 
graphic data. Eventually these data were organized in the format 
of the National Registry of Natural Areas and entered into its 
computer file. In the early part of the survey, time limitations 
and the need for portability of the information suggested a simpler, 
interim solution. Data cards (Burroughs Y-0 Unisort) conducive to 
a punch-hole sorting technique were typed for each natural area. 
The system can handle 22 blocks of ten bits each or 220 items per 
card. Desired information can be located in the master key 
describing the block Information, a rod run through the proper 
hole, and the cards punched for th.it hole fall loose and deliver 
the data. The major advantages of the system are the portability 
of Che entire deck, the elimination of alphabetization and cross 



-46- 



indexing, and the ability, with a modest amount of hand sorting, 
to group and regroup the data in any desired way. The information 
from the data cards was used to develop the computer registry'. 

A geographic inventory approach was developed so that each 
element of data would be mapped at a common scale on a standard 
base map of the entire Chesapeake Bay study area. Since there 
was no existing map of the entire region sufficiently detailed 
to portray area information such as wetlands or other important 
natural areas, a base map was made using a mosaic of the seven 
1:250,000 scale U. S. Geological Survey topographic maps of the 
area. 

Data were mapped on transparent overlays to allow for 
manipulation and analysis, and on topographic map base sheets 
that could be inexpensively reproduced as osalid prints. Several 
reproducible mylar base sheets were prepared, each containing a 
photographic copy of the map mosaic and displaying the standard 
information such as cities and towns, roads, topography, and 
water features. 

Because of the need for more detailed mapping of specific 
sites and natural phenomena, it was necessary to prepare a set 
of 1:24,000 scale (7 1/2 minute) USGS topographic quadrangle maps 
covering the study area represented on the 1:250,000 scale maps. 
A complete set of 281 topographic maps was assembled and keyed to 
the larger study area map by numerical index. 



-47- 



The 1:250,000 maps and overlay techniques visually shox<;ed the 
ecologically important and significant features of the area, and 
areas required for their preservation. 

The Numerical Ranking System 

To set priorities among 232 diverse areas calls for a numeri- 
cal ranking system whereby one can weight selected criteria that 
delineate ecological and, in some instances, social values. Some 
criteria require not only detailed knowledge of the sites in question 
but also a broad knowledge of the range and rarity of plant and 
animal species. 

In other words, numerical values were assigned each criterion 
based on ecological judgment. Modifications were made in the course 
of the project and testing and further improvements of the system 
are needed. The weighting system gives greater importance to plant 
communities or types that are not in the National System of 
Research Natural Areas, those for which there are already many exam- 
ples. Also, the factors of diversity, quality, lack of past and 
present disturbance, protectabllity , and other factors have been 
given appropriate weighting. 

Subjective evaluation could be added to take into account 
species with human emotional or national significance. The condor, 
whooping crane or bald eagle have higher importance for preservation 
Chan a subspecies of sedge which can be identified by only a few 
specialists. 



-48- 



Several other ecological ranking systems have tried to take 
into account the factors of man-induced pressures on the land 
and relative isolation from development. Indeed, one of the 
original rankings used in this study gave added weight to threatened 
areas. This seems to make sense for any setting of priorities as 
far as timing is concerned. But as far as true ecological value 
is the measure, isolation from threatened destruction should 
receive greater numerical value. If both of these factors are 
included in one system, they tend to cancel each other out. For 
these reasons we have excluded the factors of threat and isola- 
tion. In the implementation of preservation actions, however, 
the ecologically important areas that are threatened most should 
of course be worked on first. 

Selecti o n of Proposed Natural Areas . In making the quantita- 
tive evaluation of each site considered as a natural area, all of 
the data in the file for each site were put into a standardized 
format for natural areas. This is the system jointly developed for the 
Natural Area Registry by The Nature Conservancy and the 
Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas. It is compatible with 
the system used by the U. S. Committee on Conservation of 
Ecosystems of the International Biological Program. The data for 
the considered sites for the Chesapeake Bay are shown in the 
complete print-outs. They also contain the present rating for 
each site (also shown in the lists in this report). The ratings 
are not perman ent and c an be updated wi t h the addition of further 
ecological informat ion . 



-49- 



Some areas, of course, have extensive information, perhaps 
including records of species no longer present, and other areas 
have very little data but are still of great vaJ.ue. Therefore, 
the svstem is designed to be highly flexible with regular updating 
and change of ratings possible. For this reason, no data on sites 
with low ratings are destroyed since data may accumulate to 
increase the ratings. Also, areas with high ratings may be 
lowered with loss or destruction of ecological features. 

Several versions of the ranking system were tried out in this 
survey. One of the early systems used gave equal weighting to 
each of the criteria but it was only partially successful in 
establishing what the project staff judged to be valid priorities. 
With the acquisition of more detailed data from each area a 
reevaluation was required and the present evaluation system was 
used. [SEE TABLE 4] 

A separate but related procedure in the rating process was 
the use of mapping techniques. When all of the ecologicallv 
significant data on plants, animals, unique communities and habitats, 
wetlands and other features have been mapped and printed on trans- 
parent overlays, the data are then visually available. A base map 
of Che areas presently protected, transparent ecological data 
overlays, and an overlay of the proposed natural area sites 
permit visual evaluation of the value of each proposed site and 
shows the need for additional specific natural area sites to protect 
concentrations of important fauna, flora, and ecosystems. Overlays 



-'jO- 



shoxv the ranges of certain species, help in specifying critical 
sites for preservation, and are of great value in evaluating how 
effective the list of existing and proposed sites are in 
preserving the ecological features. Those sites with many 
valuable ecological features can then become the target of high 
priority field studies, as a prelude to procurement. 

There were 232 areas considered, and rated, using the 
criteria and numerical weighting system in Table 4 and overlay 
maps 3 and 4. The highest rating was 24 and the lowest was 1. 
There were 57 areas with a rating of over 10. These have been 
selected for highest priority proposed primary natural areas. 
The rest are recommended for secondary consideration except for 
7 areas recommended for special consideration. These include 
areas with 10 or less points but are essential to provide 
examples of outlier hemlock, bogs, or other special categories. 
Thus there are 64 areas which should be given primary considera- 
tion for procurement. This system gives a premium to diversity 
and the greater the variety of natural features and biota, the 
higher priority is the area. However, ecological judgment is 
required in making the final recommendations based on the number 
of ecosystem types represented and any special categories that 
must be considered. Since the data have been computerized, it is 
possible for a procurement agency to selectively determine 
priorities using selected categories. For example, if it is 
desired to select the areas with virgin or mature hardwoods, or 



-51- 



areas containing eagle nests, these can now be selected readily. 

The 64 natural areas of prime ecological importance are listed 
below in Table 5 in order of numerical ranking. These and the 
remaining 168 areas are indexed by state and countv on Page 
and by alphabetical order on Page , for ease in cross-referencing. 
The remaining areas under consideration which appear in Table 6 all 
received lower rankings using this particular system. They should 
not , however, be neglected because they could easily score much 
higher with different weightings or with the inclusion of other 
factors in the rating system. 

The 64 prime natural areas represent roughly 28% of the original 
232 areas considered and ranked. In area, the sixtv-four sites 
include about 236 square miles. Thus we are recommending procurement 
or other preservation action for roughly 2% of the land in the 
Chesapeake Bay region study area. The Center for Natural Areas is 
already evaluating some of these areas as part of the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain Natural Landmark Survey, under contract with the National Park 
Service, Department of the Interior. 



NOTE: This survey should not be considered final or complete. Some 
prime natural areas may have been inadvertently missed which 
should have been included. The Center for Natural Areas welcomes 
any and all additional ecological information to improve its 
knowledge of the Bay region. 



-■>2- 

TABLE 4. CRITERIA AND QUA N TITATIVE VALUES 
FOR SELECTION OF NATURAL AREAS 



1. Ecosystem Types 

Diversity of ecosystem types 
Little or no past and present disturbance 
High diversity of species 

Type not represented in National Research Natural 
Area System ^ 

2. Endangered, or Threatened Biota and Gene Pool Species 

Endangered and threatened plant or animal species 
Rare, declining, or depleted species 

3. Range Phenomena 

Outliers, disjuncts, or relict species 
Limits of range — N, S, E, W 
Restricted and endemic species 

4. Seasonal Concentrations of Animals 

Seasonal breeders - nesting, spawning 
Overwintering concentrations 
Migratory concentrations 

5. Commercial, Game, or Unusual Animal Populations 

Ungulates, game birds, fur bearers 
Fish, clams, oysters, crabs 

6. Paleontological, Geological and Archeological Features 

Bones and artifacts, deposits of fossils, peat, 

lignite, sediments, structural and geomorphological 
features 

7. Sites of well documented scientific research or 

discovery and records over period of years 

8. Oldest, largest, or otherwise exceptional individuals 

or associations 



Points 

1 (each) 

2 

2 

4 



4 (each sp.) 
2 (each sp.) 



1 
1 
1 



1 
1 
1 



1 

1 



1 (each 
feature) 



1 (each) 



9. Size of area 
Acres 
Under 100 acres 
100 - 1,000 
1,000 - 5,000 
over 5,000 



H ectares 
Under 45 
45 - 457 
457 - 2,270 
over 2,270 



1 
2 
3 
4 



-53- 

Example of the Rating System in Us e. Below is an illustration of 
the rating system as applied to Zekiah Swamp, the first-ranked area. 
The natural features of the site are listed or summarized on the left. 
On the right are the numerical values which apply to those features, 
according to the scheme in Table 4 on the previous page. 

Data Points Awarded 

Zekiah Swamp 

I-Iaryland 

Charles County 

5,385 hectares in size 4 

Private ownership 

Hardwood swamp forest 1 

Good stands of Ilex opaca , Quercus palustris , 

and Liquidambar styracif lua . Mature Timber. 
High diversity of plant species. 2 

Populaous heterophylla , southern outlier 1 

Beaver, mink (commercial species) 1 

Osprey (depleted), heronry (seasonal breeders) 3 

Wilson's snipe and wood duck (overwintering) 1 

Concentration of migrating birds 1 

Southern Bald Eagle nest (endangered) 4 

Rare animals: red bellied woodpecker, 

Maryland Diamondback Terrapin, Allocapania 

Zekiah Stonefly 4 

One of the largest of Maryland's remaining 

undisturbed swamps 2 



Rating Total 24 



-S/^- 



V. MASTER LIST OF NATURAL AREAS 

The following eighty-six color pages consist of a computer print- 
out of key information on all 232 areas considered in this survey, listed 
in order of ecological importance. There is of course no hard-and-fast 
necessity for the particular placement of each area in the list, especially 
for the areas which received equal numerical ratings . Therefore the reader 
should view this list with a certain fluidity, remembering that the ranks 
may change with improvement in data or insight. The list is separated on 
page 73, with primary areas recommended for preservation above and second- 
ary areas recommended for consideration below. Note that some areas in 
the secondary section deserve special attention and should therefore be 
considered for preservation with the primary group. These seven areas are: 

Helen Creek Hemlock Preserve; Calvert Co. , Maryland; p73 

Chisel Run Bog; James City Co., Virginia; p74 

King Creek - Kingston Landing; Talbot Co., Maryland; p76 

Blinkhorn Creek; Dorchester Co., Maryland; pp87 & 88 

Round Bay Bog; Anne Arundel Co., Maryland; p91 

Andover Branch; Queen Anne Co., Maryland; plOl 

Hemlock Stand on Mill Creek; Caroline Co., Maryland; pl02 

When searching for areas with high priority, consult the first part 
of the master list. When searching for areas within a particular county, 
consult the Index on page 119. Areas themselves can be found in the 
Alphabetical Index on page 130. To find the map location of an area, 
consult the U.S. Geological Survey 7.5 minute series topographic maps 
named under "Quadrangle" in the master list. 



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-1^- 



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34 pp. 



APPENDIX A 



DESCRIPTION OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 



by 



Stephen L. Keiley 
Director, Center for Natural Areas 



Center for Natural Areas 

Ecology Program 
Smithsonian Institution 

June, I'JTi 



DESCRIPTION OF CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 



The Chesapeake Bay area as shown on the accompanying maps including 
the tidewater counties of Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware covers an 
area of about 100 by 200 miles or about 20,000 square miles. This area 
is divided as follows (Jenkins, 1971): 

Square Miles 



Maryland 
Virginia 
Delaware 

Chesapeake Bay and 
tributaries 


6800 
6700 
2100 

4400 



Total 20000 

The name Chesapeake is derived from its original Indian name, and 
literal interpretations vary from "Great Waters" to "Mother of Waters", 
all refer to its immense size (Shands and Mathes, 1972), and, in fact, 
Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary on the East Coast, and with its 
tributaries it is considered by some scientists to be the greatest 
estuarine system in the world. Four major rivers and 50 large tributaries 
drain into Chesapeake Bay from headwaters in New York, Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. The shoreline 
(particularly the western edge) is irregularly .ligitated by the tidal 
river estuaries. The tidal shore line is about 4,600 miles in length, 
of which 3,400 are miles in Maryland and 1,200 miles in Virginia (Corps, 
1970). 

The Bay has a drainage basin of 74,000 square miles an area 
larger than all of New England. The Susquehanna River (largest river 
in the eastern U. S.) contributes 49 percent of the annual freshwater 
runoff of the entire Bay, and 87 percent of that north of the mouth of 
the Potomac. The Potomac River estuary contributes about 18 percent of 
the total freshwater inflow into the Bay. The annual contribution by 
the other western rivers are: James - 16 percent; Rappahannock - 4 
percent; York - 2 percent; and others - 4 percent. The eastern rivers 
(Choptank, Nantlcoke and Wicomico) contribute only 7 percent of the 
total runoff (Saila, 1973). 

The mean tidal fluctuation In Chesapeake Bay is small, generally 
between one and two feet. Saline water intrusion is highest along the 
eastern side of the estuary due to the influence of the Corlolis force. 
Salinities range from 35 parts per thousand inside the mouth of the 
bay to near zero at the north end of the bay and at the heads of embay- 
ments tributary to the bay. Sprlnp, floods and the relatively dry fall 

A-i 



A- 2 



periods contribute to seasonal variations in salinity throughout the 
Bay. 

The Chesapeake Bay study area lies entirely within the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain, and is underlain by a thick, wedge-shaped series of 
sedimentary formations which strike northeast and dip gently toward the 
southeast. These "soft" rocks are composed of mostly unconsolidated 
beds of sands, clays, marls, and gravels, which range from Lower 
Cretaceous to Recent in age. The base upon which these sedimentary 
formations rest is composed of very ancient, predominantly pre-Cambrian, 
crystalline rocks upon which a prolonged pre-Cretaceous erosion cycle 
produced a peneplained surface. Along the inner westernmost edge of 
the Coastal Plain, the crystalline rocks emerge from beneath the over- 
lapping unconsolidated formations along a line of demarcation known as 
the "Fall Line" which marks the head of navigation on some tributaries 
to Chesapeake Bay, such as the Patapsco River at Baltimore, the Potomac 
River at Washington, and the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg, 
Virginia. The Fall Line also marks a topographic change westward, from 
the flat or gently rolling low elevation of the Coastal Plain to the 
higher elevated, bolder relief of the Piedmont Plateau (Corps, 1970). 

Of the 20,000 square miles of the Chesapeake Bay region, 15,600 
square miles are land. Table 1 shows the distribution of this land 
into forests, agricultural land, pasture, urban areas, and marsh wet- 
lands . 

The forest land covers an area of slightly over 6 million acres 
or 9450 square miles. Forests include 68 percent of the tidewater 
counties of Maryland, 60 percent of Virginia and 48 percent of 
Delaware. The total value of the cut timber (stumpage) is about $13 
million in Maryland, $13 million in Virginia, and $0.5 million in 
Delaware . 

The forests of the Chesapeake Bay include the combination of oak, 
hickory, and pine as the major type, but, in the southern part, the 
combinations are oak with hickory, oak with pine, loblolly pine with 
shortleaf pine, and oak with gum and cypress. In many areas with 
better soils there are a large number of mixed mesophytic deciduous 
species with maple, tulip tree, beech, gum, various species of oak, 
flood plain species of ash, elm, maple, sycamore, birch, and many 
other species. The main timber trees are red and white oak, tulip tree, 
pine, sweetgum, and various other hardwoods. 



CROP PRODUCTION ON THE COASTAL PLAIN 
OF DELAWARE, MARYLAND, AND VIRGINIA 



Figure 1 



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LJ 



Data l«r l 969 







■ mtlhaontcn Inclltutlon 



A-4 



TABLE 1. 



LAND USE IN CHESAPEAKE STUDY AREA 



Use 



Maryland 
(percent) 



Virginia 


Delaware 


(percent) 


(P' 


arcent) 


60 




48 


23 




32 


2 




2.5 


6 




9 


- 




8.5 



Forest 

Agricultural Crops 

Pasture 

Urban/ Indus trial 

Coastal marsh 



68 

23 

6 

3 



The agricultural cropland of the tidewater counties covers an 
area of 3670 square miles. The agricultural cropland of the Bay 
region in Maryland is 23 percent, in Virginia 23 percent, and in 
Delaware 32 percent. The value of agricultural crops and livestock 
of this region is an estimated $500 million dollars. 

Figure 1 shows the agricultural crops of the Chesapeake Bav 
region. These include mainly corn, soybeans, barley, potatoes,' 
tobacco, peanuts, hay, and tomatoes and other vegetables. The 
eastern shore of Maryland is agriculturally suited for truck crops 
because of its sandy productive soil, sufficient water, and long 
growing period. The most important crops are soybeans, corn, wheat, 
and vegetable crops. On the western shore of Maryland the major 
crops are hay, corn, tobacco, wheat, and some soybeans, and vege- 
tables. In the Virginia region, the main agricultural crops are 
corn, soybeans, peanuts, wheat, barley, and tobacco. In the 
Delaware area the main crops are corn, soybeans, hay, barley, rye, 
oats, and lima beans, and other vegetables. 

Extensive vegetation along the Chesapeake Bay shoreline includes 
salt marshes and wetlands. This vegetation is estimated to be 8.5 
percent of the land area in Delaware alone. Recent studies show the 
wetlands comprise 152,000 acres in Virginia (Wass and Wright, 1969), 
and 84,000 acres in Maryland (McHarg, 1972). Other sources indicate 
that there are perhaps as much as 500,000 acres of wetlands in the 
Bay area (USDI, 1970). These wetlands are of great importance to 
wildlife and production of aquatic life. The main vegetation is 
grass of various types, saltbush, cattail, and many other species of 
plants. Salt grass is mowed in some of the regions and is valuable 
for mulch and other uses (Jenkins, 1971) . 

The climate of the Bay region is moderate with average annual 
temperature varying a few degrees from the northern to the southern 
end of the Bay. The average annual temperature is 55°F in the north. 



A-5 



with an average of 190 frost-free days annually to 60°F in the south 
with an average of 210 frost-free days. 

Normal annual total precipitation is 44 inches throughout the 
Bay region. Prolonged droughts are rare but short dry spells prompt 
the use of supplemental irrigation for the production of crops 
(Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service, 1972) . 



USES AND PRESSURES 

Chesapeake Bay has provided man with food, wealth, an easy means 
of travel, and satisfaction for some 5,000 years. The Indians reaped 
a rich harvest of fish and shell fish, gathered shells for making 
trading wampum, and plied its seemingly endless waterways in their 
dugout canoes. 

The imprint the Indians made was small indeed-so small that 
evidence of their long tenure is difficult to find. Far different 
have been their European successors. Great changes have been 
wrought. Changes are still being made. Yet amid these changes 
there are still many areas of the Bay that appear virtually untouched. 
Others look much like they must have in Colonial times. The Chesa- 
peake estuary retains fragments of all the different eras that have 
occurred from the most primitive to the most modern. 

Although the major uses of the Chesapeake have changed little, 
the techniques by which the uses are effected have undergone consid- 
erable modification. Often uses are in direct conflict with each 
other. However, the estuary is so vast and the uses are so varied 
that the Bay has accommodated most of them. In the past few decades 
however, it has become increasingly apparent that even this vast area 
is being transformed. Some of these changes are hardly evident and 
others have profound effects far from the locations being changed - 
and many are in the best interests of only a few people but at the 
expense of many. 

The population pressure on the Bay is increasing. The Chesa- 
peake estuary is the southern anchor of the Atlantic coastal 
megalopolis that sprawls from Massachusetts to Virginia. The ports 
of Baltimore and Hampton Roads, their satellite cities and the 
others that have developed around the Bay supported 11 million people 
In I960 - a population expected to more than double in tlie next 40 
years. An additional 3 1/2 million people live within a day's drive 
fr(»m the Bay. 

WaCerborne commerce has always been among the most important 



A-6 



uses for the Chesapeake estuary. Approximately 110 million tons move 
annually over the waterway and contribute, in large measure, to the 
economy of an 11 state area, extending into the Midwest, (U.S. D.I,, 1970) 

The port of Baltimore alone handles nearly 50 million tons 
annually and if the annual increase in freight traffic in the harbor 
is maintained, freight traffic tonnage will triple by the year 2000. 
A recent survey showed that the commercial complex making up the port 
of Baltimore directs $1.56 billion a year into Maryland's economy, 
which represents 11.7 percent of the Maryland gross State product 
(McHarg, 1972). 

The trend in commercial navigation is toward larger ships, 
which in turn require deeper channels, posing greater problems 
locating dredge spoil disposal areas. Modifying channel geometry 
may cause increases in upstream salinity, and unwise disposal of 
spoil can have marked effects on living marine organisms. It is 
estimated that the raw sewage discharged into the Bay by ships in 
transit is equivalent to that of a community of twenty-five 
thousand people, constantly. 

Fishing is another important industry with Bay-wide significance. 
The region is one of the richest fish and wildlife habitats in the 
world and as such, it is a most important seafood harvesting area. 
More than 400 million pounds of fish and shellfish worth $30 million 
were taken from Bay waters in 1966. The weight of fish landed was 
almost triple that of shellfish with nearly 304 million pounds of 
fish harvested as compared to 125 million pounds of shellfish. But 
the value of fish was only $7.3 million, or less than one third of 
the value of the shellfish which netted $22.2 million. Oysters alone 
represented $15 million, or one half the value of the total fisheries 
harvest. Of the finfish the menhaden catch was the largest with 243 
million pounds worth $3.9 million. 



TABLE I. COMMERCIAL FISHERY 1966 

Type Pounds Value 

Finfish 303.5 mil 
Oysters 20 

Clams 8 

Crabs 95 

Superimposed on the heavy commercial seafood harvest is a grow- 
ing recreational fishery. In 1966 it was estimated that Bay anglers 
caught 22 million pounds of fish and generated about $10 million in 
expenditures. 



$7. 


,3 


mil 


15 






2. 


,1 




6. 


.8 





A- 7 



Strategically positioned in the Atlantic Flyway, Chesapeake Bay 
is very important in the migratory bird pattern. Most of the waterfowl 
produced on both sides of the James and Hudson Bays all the way up to 
Greenland funnel into the Chesapeake marshes on their southward 
migration. As a wintering area for waterfowl, the Chesapeake salt 
marshes have few equals. More than 75 percent of the wintering 
population of Atlantic Flyway Canada geese occurs on or near tide water, 
from Kent County in Delaware to Hyde County in North Carolina. The 
marshes and grain fields of the Delmarva Peninsula are particularly 
attractive to Canada geese and to grain feeding black ducks and mallards. 
In the early fall, home is the Susquehanna flats for huge flocks of 
American widgeon. Several species of diving ducks including the 
canvasback, redhead, ring-necked duck, and sometimes, scaup, winter on 
Chesapeake Bay from the Susquehanna flats south to the confluence of 
Bay and ocean at the tip of the Delmarva Peninsula. About half of the 
80,000 whistling swans in North America winter on the estuaries of 
Chesapeake Bay and Currituck Sound. Much of the breeding area in the 
Atlantic Flyway is still wild and remote. It can be counted on to 
send hundreds of thousands of new birds winging down the flyway each 
fall. But good wintering areas, adjacent to preferred feeding grounds, 
are relatively scarce, and as human populations inevitably expand, the 
size, number, and quality of these wintering areas will diminish 
accordingly. At present, Chesapeake Bay provides some of the best 
and most heavily used waterfowl wintering habitat remaining in the 
Fljway . 

The Atlantic Flyway has more than 32 million acres of wetland 
habitat and 96 percent of it is located from Maryland south. Only 
4 million acres are of moderate to high value for waterfowl, and only 
2 1/2 million acres are salt-marsh, the type of high-quality waterfowl 
habitat found in the Chesapeake Bay. Estimates vary, but the bay area 
encompasses roughly one-third of a million acres of salt-marsh habitat 
of which about one-quarter of a million acres is of moderate to high 
value for waterfowl. Public owned wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay area 
total about 95,000 acres. Most of this habitat too, is high in quality 
and supports large populations of wintering birds. An additional 55,000 
acres of quality marsh Is owned and managed by approximately 380 private 
waterfowl liunting clubs. Thus, about 150,000 acres or approximately 
half of the salt-marsh in Chesapeake Bay is managed specifically for 
waterfowl and is likely to continue to be managed for this purpose in 
the foreseeable future. 

In recent years, Chesapeake Bay has wintered approximately 550,000 
ducks and 350,000 geese which provided an estimated 250,000 man-days 
of waterfowl hunting and 275,000 birds in the bag. Nearly 100, 000 
Canada geese, the king of waterfowl, are harvested on Chesapeake Bay, 
the queen of bays (USDI, 1970). 



A- 8 



Erosion and siltation constitutes a significant problem for the 
Bay region. The earth lost from the land to the Bay has hurt the farmers 
who need the soil for their crops, the shippers whose vessels must 
navigate shoaling channels, and the fishermen whose aquatic harvest 
is being stifled and lost. 

Evidence derived from early charts and maps, from historical 
documents, and from field studies and borings indicates that the rate 
of sedimentation in different portions of the Chesapeake Bay has varied 
over historic time. Prior to settlement by colonists and the initiation 
of land clearing and agriculture, rates of sediment contribution from 
land under forest cover were perhaps on the order of 100 tons/sq.mi. /yr. 
However, with the advent of extensive clearing for agriculture, these 
rates rose rapidly to values of 400 to 800 tons/sq.mi. /yr. As early as 
the latter part of the seventeenth century visitors to colonial America 
noted both the erosion of the fields and the muddy character of the 
freshets. In addition, they observed the rapid siltation taking place 
in a number of the early colonial harbor and river towns (State of 
Maryland, 1968) . 

The Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers transport the major sediment 
loads deposited within the Chesapeake Bay system. The sediment con- 
tribution of the Susquehanna is considerably moderated by the hydro- 
electric dams between Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and Conowingo, Mary- 
land, in that these reservoirs trap a significant amount of sediment 
moving downstream. The Susquehanna watershed is estimated to supply 
some 600 thousand tons per year, or approximately 23 tons per square mile. 
The largely unregulated Potomac River Basin, on the other hand, con- 
tributes an estimated 2.5 million tons per year to the estuarine 
system. This is approximately 170 tons per square mile (Corps, 1970). 

The fact that each tributary entering the Chesapeake Bay deposits 
the bulk of its sediment load in the vicinity of its entrance to the 
Bay constitutes an obvious economic "fact of life" for the economy of 
the Bay itself. Perhaps the most striking illustration is provided 
by the Potomac and the Anacostia Rivers in the vicinity of the nation's 
capitol where channel improvement and dredging operations have been 
virtually continuous since 1804. Much of the land adjacent to the 
river including Haynes Point, the parkland along the Anacostia River, 
and the National Airport are all made of sediments dredged from the 
rivers. It is estimated that the annual cost of dredging on the 
Potomac is on the order of $150,000 per year (State of Maryland, 1968). 

Recently it has become evident that increasing urbanization and 
accompanying construction activities on the landscape may contribute 
immense quantities of sediment to local areas. It is estimated that 
of the million tons per year in the Potomac at Washington, approxi- 



A-9 



mately 25-30 percent is derived from construction sites in the metropolitan 
region. Inasmuch as population can be expected to continue to burgeon in 
many areas surrounding the Chesapeake Bay, construction activities can 
also be expected to increase. This in turn will transform the landscape 
and may lead to the addition of uncontrolled quantities of silt to the 
estuarine tributaries (State of Maryland, 1968). 

Shoreline erosion also contributes to the silt load and is the 
single most dramatic, and most readily apparent geomorphological process 
occurring in the Bay. Historical data, though somewhat spotty, provides 
some perspective. It has been estimated that, along the 230 miles of 
Maryland's primary Bay shoreline, some 6,000 acres of land have been 
lost to the sea between 1845 and 1942. Recent rates of erosion loss are 
estimated to be approximately 0.17 acres/mile/year in the northern Bay 
area and 0.34 acres /mile/year in Maryland's southern Bay portion. To 
illustrate the variability of erosion loss rates estimated between 1845 
and 1942, the Cecil-Somerset County shoreline losses were estimated to 
be 0.13 acres/mile/year, while Dorchester County losses were estimated 
to be of the order of 0.64 acres/mile/year. It must be emphasized that 
land area losses do not indicate volumes of material handled, because 
of the differential in land elevation of various areas of Bay frontage. 

The present and anticipated future social and economic development 
of the Chesapeake Bay Basin, with the estimated large increase in popu- 
lation, emphasizes the vulnerability of the Bay's sensitive estuarine 
system to the future works of man. In particular, the waste discharges 
of man's commerce and activity have a growing impact on the Bay. These 
waste loads are derived from municipal, industrial and agricultural 
sources. 

Agricultural pollutants consist primarily of silt, fertilizer, 

insecticides, herbicides, and animal wastes. Industrial wastes contain 
a wide assortment of detrimental material ranging from sand and gravel 
wastes and heavy metals through complex chemical compounds and mine 
waste. Many of the latter waste types are toxic to both aquatic biota 
and man. Municipal discharges contain human wastes and a huge panorama 
of household and industrial by-products, and often inject significant 
bacterial loads Into the aquatic environment, infecting both finfish 
and shellfish, making them potentially dangerous and therefore unfit 
for human comsumption. 

Gross estimates Indicate that pollution affects some 400,000 acres 
of finfish habitat and 42,000 acres of shellfish habitat in Chesapeake 
Bay. Municipal and domestic discharges cause the major pollution 
problem. 

There are other significant threats to the Chesapeake Bay 
environment. These Include both inter- and intra-basin diversions 



A- 10 



of freshwater. The determination of the effects of upstream manage- 
ment of the fresh water resource on the marine environment have only 
recently become of concern to oceanographers and marine biologists. 
Current examples of this problem in Chesapeake Bay are (1) the 
deepening of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which will increase 
the net amount of water flowing from the head of Chesapeake Bay into 
Delaware Bay from about 900 cubic feet per second to about 2100 cubic 
feet per second, and (2) the Baltimore Water Supply Tunnel which taps 
the Susquehanna River above Conowingo Dam. Fresh water diversions 
can alter the salinity regime of the headwaters of the Bay, affecting 
the spawning opportunity of many species of fish. Further study of 
these problems will undoubtedly reveal presently unknown ecological 
ramification of the estuary's struggle to reach and maintain suit- 
able equilibrium in the wake of the incursions of man (Corps, 1970). 

References : 

The Corps of Engineers. 1970. The Chesapeake Bay Plan of Study. 
Baltimore District, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service. 1972. North 
Atlantic Regional Water Resources Study, Land Use and Manage- 
ment. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Jenkins, D. W. 1971. Agriculture and Forestry. Identification, 
Vigor and Disease. Article from Remote Sensing of Chesapeake 
Bay, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, 
D. C. NASA SP-294. 

McHarg, Ian. 1972. Integrity of the Chesapeake Bay. Urban 
Research and Development Corporation, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Saila, Saul B. 1973. Coastal and Offshore Environmental 
Inventory. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, 
Iferine Publication Series #2. 

Shands, W. E. and Mathes, Ruth. 1972. The Future of Chesapeake 
Bay. Sierra Club Bulletin, Vol. 57, No. 4. 

State of Maryland. 1968. Proceedings of the Governors Conference 
on Chesapeake Bay. Westinghouse Ocean Research and Engineering 
Center, Annapolis, Maryland. 

U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1970. 
National Estuary Study, vol. 3. U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

Wass, Marvin L. and Wright, Thomas D. 1969. Coastal Wetlands of 
Virginia. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Glouster Point, 
Virtginia. 



APPENDIX B 



BIOTIC COMMUNITIES OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 



by 

Gary S. Waggoner 
Ecologist 



Center for Natural Areas 

Ecology Program 
Smith son I .'in Institution 



.Ivinc", 1973 



B-1 



BIOTIC COMMUNITIES OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY^^ 



INTRODUCTION 

This report presents a summary of the characteristic 
biota and biotic communities of the Chesapeake Bay region, defined 
in terms of typical vegetation, associated animal species, and 
critical environmental factors. The plant species listed are the 
dominant or characteristic species typical of the various biotic 
communities. The animal species lists are more extensive and in- 
clude the common and/or characteristic species associated with 
each biotic community. 

The ecology of the Chesapeake Bay region has been 
influenced strongly by the presence of civilized man. But even 
before the colonists had set foot on the continent, Indians had 
made their presence known. Fire was an often used tool of the 
Indians for hunting purposes and clearing land. 

Following colonization by white men, more intensive 
land clearing occurred during the eighteenth and early part of 
the nineteenth centuries. Lumber was needed for shelter and 
firewood and the settlers brought their European agricultural 
system with them. Virgin land was so plentiful that a shifting 
form of agriculture with little care for the soil became 
prevalent. Tobacco depleted much of the soil of its nutrients 
and when fields were abandoned, erosion quickly exhausted the 
topsoil. At the time of the Civil War, labor became scarce and 
much of the previously cultivated land was abandoned. These 
abandoned fields were invaded by loblolly pine Pinus taeda , 
pitch pine Pinus rigida and scrub pine Pinus virginiana . These 
species are typical pioneer tree species in old field or 
secondary succession. 

Pine forests, although common, are not the climax 
vegetation but are dominant due to a history of disturbances 
including fire, agriculture and lumbering. Braun (1950) indicates 



The information for this appendix has been taken from a 
report by the author on the "Atlantic Coastal Plain Natural 
Region Survey" written for a contract with the National Park 
Service's Natural Landmarks Program. This report was edited by 
the principal investigator and author by extracting those portions 
relevant to the Chesapeake Bay region. This report has certain 
shortcoinings primarily relating to the difference in scope of the 
two reports; the larger Atlantic Coastal Plain region versus the 
more circumscribed Chesapeake Bay region. 



B-2 



that the Chesapeake Bay region should actually be considered an 
Eastern Oak-Hickory Forest region due to the dominance of oaks 
Quercus spp . and hickories Carya spp . in the climax communities. 

The following is a breakdown of the major plant 
community types occurring in the Chesapeake Bay region with an 
indication of some of the critical environmental factors 
(limiting factors) controlling the community. After each 
description of a plant community type, some of the typical ani- 
mal species associated with it are listed. 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

The northern portion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain is 
characterized by drowned river valleys, the best example of which 
is the Chesapeake Bay. The Chesapeake Bay is a unique estuary 
comprised of the drowned Susquehanna River Valley and several of 
its tributaries. The bay is unique because of its size and 
isolation from the Atlantic Ocean. 

Salt Marsh 

The salt marsh community is here divided into two 
different phases, the regularly flooded phase, and the irregularly 
flooded phase. Salt marsh develops in the low areas where 
inundation by salt water is frequent enough to prevent the sur- 
vival of non-salt-tolerant species. The vegetation is dominated 
by various grasses and sedges. Woody species occur only on the 
higher ridges in this community. 

The regularly flooded salt marshes occur along the open 
ocean and in the shallow sounds behind barrier islands. They are 
inundated twice daily to a depth of six inches or more by the 
highly saline waters of normal high tides. The flushing action 
of the tides is essential to this salt marsh community. It 
brings in certain nutrients from the surrounding estuary and 
flushes out toxic waste materials. Tidal creeks meander through 
the salt marsh and are rich in silt and organic debris from inland 
runoff. This provides additional nutrient supply to the surround- 
ing marshes. 

The regularly flooded salt marshes are generally dominated 
by saltmarsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora . Saltmeadow cordgrass 
Spartina patens , salt grass Distichlis spicata , black needlerush 
Juncus roemerianus and glasswort Salicornia spp . are usually abun- 
dant. Along the more elevated ridges of the marsh, groundsel 
Baccharls halimif olia , marsh elder Iva frutescens , sea oxeye 
Borrichia frutescens , and sea lavender Limonium spp . occur. 



R-3 



The variations in drainage and salinity account for rather distinct 
plant zonation and distribution. 

Irregularly flooded salt marshes occur along the shores 
of bays, sounds, and rivers. They are flooded only irregularly by 
wind and storm tides with from a few inches to several feet of 
water. Tidal creeks also dissect the irregularly flooded salt 
marshes but are typically shorter and straighter than those of the 
regularly flooded salt marshes. The water in these tidal creeks 
generally is less rich in organic debris and silt. 

The vegetation is largely dominated by black needlerush 
Juncus roemerianus with saltmeadow cordgrass Spartina patens, salt 
grass Distichlis spicata , glasswort Salicornia spp . and saltmarsh 
three-square Scirpus robustus occurring as common associates. On 
ridges of high ground, marsh elder Iva frutescens and groundsel 
Bacharis halimifolia are common. Switchgrass Panicum virgatum 
may occur over large areas adjacent to the upland along with sea 
lavender Limonium spp . and sea oxeye Borrichia frutescens . 

Typical animals include: 

Horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus 

Fiddler crabs Uca spp . 

Marsh crab Sesarma reticulatum 

Saltmarsh snail Melampus bidentatu s 

Periwinkle snail Littorina irrorata 

Ribbed mussel Volsella demissa 

Stinkpot Sternotherus odoratus 

Diamondback terrapin Malaclemys terrapin 

Water snake Natrix sipedon 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Canada goose Branta canadensis 

Snow goose Chen hyperborea 

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 

Black duck Anas rubripes 

Pintail Anas acuta 

Blue winged teal Anas discors 

American widgeon Mareca americana 

Shoveler Spatula clypeata 

Herons 

Egrets 

Marsh hawk Circus cyaneus 

Sparrow hawk Fa 1 c- o sparverlus 

Clapper rail kail us lon>;lro3tr Is 

Short eared owl Aslo f lammeus 

Sharp tailed sparrow Ammosplza caudacuta 

Seaside sparrow Ammosplza marltlma 



B-4 



Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Least Shrew Cryptotis parva 

Least cottontail Sylvilagus f lorldanus 

Rice rat Oryzomys palustris 

Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus 

Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vlson 

River otter Lutra canadensis 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors in the salt marsh include 
salinity, frequency of inundation, and nutrient input and flushing 
action of the tides. 

Brackish Marsh 

The brackish marsh community develops in the transition 
zone between freshwater and salt marshes. Brackish marshes are 
located along bays and coastal rivers and are irregularly inundated 
by high winds and storms. 

Several different plant associations are characteristic 
of this major community type. A short form of saltmarsh cordgrass 
Spartina alternif lora usually dominates the well drained areas. In 
the more poorly drained depressions, Olney's three-square Scirpus 
olneyi dominates with salt grass Distichlis spicata and black 
needlerush Juncus roemerianus occurring more abundantly along the 
better drained edges of such depressions. The taller form of salt- 
marsh cordgrass Spartina alternif lora may be found in abundance 
adjacent to tidal creeks, while saltmeadow cordgrass Spartina 
patens dominates in well drained soils adjacent to pond and creek 
borders. In the more elevated and drier areas, groundsel Baccharis 
halimifolia and marsh elder Iva frutescens are common. Other 
important plants in brackish marshes include widgeongrass Ruppia 
maritima,atriplex Atriplex patula , sea lavender Limonium carol inianum , 
seashore mallow Kosteletskya virginica and glasswort Salicornia spp . 

Typical animals include: 

Mud crabs Xanthidae 

Blue crab Callinectes sapidus 

Saltmarsh snail Melampus bidentatus 

Periwinkle snail Littorina irrorata 

Canada goose Branta canadensis 

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 

Black duck Anas rubripes 



B- 5 



Pintail Anas acuta 

Blue winged teal Anas discors 

Green winged teal Anas carolinensis 

Gadwall Anas strepera 

American widgeon Mareca americana 

Shoveler Spatula clypeata 

Hooded merganser Lophodytes cucullatus 

Osprey Pandion haliaetus 

King rail Rallus elegans 

Short eared owl Asio f lammeus 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Least shrew Cryptotis parva 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

Rice rat Qryzomys palustris 

Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus 

Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

River otter Lutra canadensis 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors include amount of salinity, 
frequency of inundation, and depth of water. 

Freshwater Marsh 



As with the salt marsh community, the freshwater community 
is divided into two phases, the coastal freshwater marsh phase and 
the inland freshwater marsh phase. The primary source of water for 
these marshes is precipitation and runoff via rivers and streams and 
thus a totally different type of community develops. 

The coastal freshwater marsh phase occurs along rivers and 
streams where there is little or no tidal action as well as in 
interdunal areas. The water is fresh or slightly brackish and 
ranges in depth from ground level to several feet. A great diversity 
of plants is distributed in these marshes in response to variation 
in depth of water and salinity. 

In areas where water is usually fresh, plants such as 
cattail Typha spp . , wlldrice Zizanla aquatica , sawgrass Cladium spp . 
pickerelweed Pontederia cordata . and waterllly Nymphaea odorata 
may form extensive stands. In the more brackish areas, species 
characteristic of the more saline environments occur including tall 
cordgrass Spart ina cynosuroldes and Olney's threesquare Scirpus 
olncyi . Other typical species of the coastal freshwater marsh are 
smartweeds Polygonum spp . , splkerushes Eleocharis spp ., sedges 



B-6 



Carex spp . , phragmites Phragmites communis , arrowhead Saglttarla 
spp . , bulrushes Scirpus spp. , pondweeds Potamogeton spp . , button- 
bush Cephalanthus occidentalis , jewelweeds Impatlens spp . and 
alders Alnus spp . 

The inland freshwater marsh phase is characterized by 
many of the same species but forms in shallow lake basins, limestone 
sinks sloughs, or at the borders of open water. The soil is water- 
logged and may be covered by three feet or more of freshwater. 
Cattails, pondweeds, bulrushes, arrowheads, smartweeds, sedges and 
water lilies again are very important constituents of the marsh. 
However, in the inland marshes, grasses Poaceace , rushes Juncus 
spp. , watermilfoils Myriophyllum spp . , duckweeds Lemna spp . , and 
spatterdock Nuphar luteum occur, often in great abundance, choking 
off open water areas. 

Corresponding with the high diversity of plant species is 
a high diversity of animal species. 

Typical animals include: 

Spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum 

Tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum 

Spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens 

Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri 

American toad Bufo americanus 

Tree frogs Hyla spp . 

Chorus frogs Pseudacris spp . 

Cricket frog Acris gryllus 

Leopard frog Ran a pipiens 

Bull frog Rana catesbeiana 

Green frog Rana clamitans 

Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina 

Eastern mud turtle Kinosternon subrubrum 

Stinkpot turtle Sternothaerus odoratus 

Spotted turtle Clemmys guttata 

Bog turtle Clemmys muhlenbergi 

Painted turtle Chrysemys picta 

Water snake Natrix sipedon 

Eastern ribbon snake Thamnophis sauritus 

Great blue heron Ardea herodias 

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 

Southern bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus 

leucocephalus 
Marsh hawk Circus cyaneus 
Osprey Pandion haliaetus 
King rail Rallus elegans 
Sora Porzana Carolina 



B-7 



Common gallinule Gallinula chloropus 

Coot Fullca americana 

Short eared owl Asio f lammeus 

Belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon 

Tree swallow Iridoprocne bicolor 

Long billed marsh wren Telmatodytes palustris 

Yellowthroat Geothypis trichas 

Red winged blackbrid Agelaius phoeniceus 

Meadowlark Sturnella magna 

Song sparrow Melospiza melodia 

Swamp sparrow Melospiza georgiana 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Masked shrew Sorex cinereus 

Star nosed mole Condylura cristata 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

Beaver Castor canadensis 

Rice rat Oryzomys palustris 

Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus 

Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus 

Red fox Vulpes fulva 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis 

River otter Lutra canadensis 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors in the freshwater marsh 
include depth of water, salinity, rate of siltation, turbidity of 
the water and competition for light and space. 

Bog 

Bog communities are divided into two different phases, 
sphagnum bogs and cedar swamps. All bogs have several features 
in common. They generally develop in areas where drainage is 
restricted, all have a surface layer of cushion-like vegetation, 
and all have an accumulation of peat. The decidedly acid condition 
of bogs limits the species which can persist here. 

Sphagnum bogs are more typical of the mountain region and 
Che far north, however, particularly in the northern section of the 
Atlantic Coastal Plain, they occur scattered across the landscape. 
Very few sphagnum bogs have persisted In the Chesapeake Bay region. 
The vegetation Is generally low to the ground with the exception of 
some scattered shrubs and trees. Two mosses Sphagnum and Hypnium 
dominate the bog l)y creating a covering over the entire surface. 
Other species scattered through the bog include buckbean Menyanthes 
trifol lata , cotton grass Frlophorum spp. . numerous sedges Carex 
8pp . . cranberry Vacclnlum macrocarpon . sweet gale Myrlca gale, bog 



B-8 



rosemary Andromeda glaucophylla , leatherleaf Chamaedaphne 
calyculata and Labrador tea Ledum groenlandicum . Insectivorous 
plants including pitcher plants Sarracenia purpurea , sundews 
Drosera spp . and bladderworts Utricularia spp . also occur in 
this rather unique community (Smith, 1966) . 

Cedar swamps are bogs dominated by dense, generally 
even-aged stands of Atlantic Coastal Plain from New Jersey north. 
While sphagnum bogs are usually small, cedar swamps may be exten- 
sive as in sections of the Pocomoke' River swamp. Pitch pine 
Pinus rigida is widely scattered while red maple Acer rub rum , 
black gum Nyssa sylvatica , and sweet bay Magnolia virginiana 
form a dense understory. Other typical shrub species include 
highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum , fetterbush Leucothoe 
spp . clammy azalea Rhododendron viscosum and bayberry Myrica 
pennsylvanica . The herbaceous ground cover includes chain fern 
Woodwardia virginica , bladderworts Utricularia spp ., pitcher 
plant Sarracenia purpurea , swamp pink Calopogon pulchellus , and 
partridgeberry Mitchella repens which are generally rather 
common. 

Typical animals include: 

Bull f org Rana catesbeiana 

Green frog Rana clamltans 

Carpenter frog Rana virgatipes 

Bog turtle Clemmys muhlenbergi 

Water snake Natrix sipedon 

Bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus 

Turkey Meleagris gallopava 

Woodcock Rhilohela minor 

Mourning dove Zenaidura macroura 

Eastern wood pewee Contopus virens 

Wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina 

Parula warbler Parula americana 

Hooded warbler Wilsonia citrina 

Opossum Didelphis marsupials 

Masked shrew Sorex clnereus 

Star nosed mole Condylura cristata 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus 

Beaver Castor canadensis 

Red-backed vole Clethrionomys gapperi 

Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus 

Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus 

Red fox Vulpes fulva 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 



B-9 



Black bear Ursus amerlcanus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

River otter Lutra canadensis 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virslnianus 

Critical environmental factors in this community include 
frequency and severity of fire, duration of flooding and amount of 
peat or elevation. 

Cypress-Gum Swamp Forest 

The cypress-gum swamp forest is probably the most 
characteristic community of the South. It reaches its northern 
distribution in the Chesapeake Bay region occurring in several 
isolated areas such as Battle Creek Cypress swamp. In deeper 
swamps where the land is flooded almost continuously, baldcypress 
Taxodium distichum and/or water tupelo Nyssa aquatica will exist 
without associates, although water tupelo is mush less tolerant 
of flooding than is baldcypress (Penfound, 1952), This community 
represents some of the wildest country remaining in the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain. Several of the larger predators persist in these 
swamps . 

Typical animals include: 

Pine woods tree frog Hyla femoralis 

Green tree frog Hyla cinerea 

Bull frog Rana catesbelana 

Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina 

Eastern mud turtle Kinosternon subrubrum 

Stinkpot Sternothaerus odoratus 

Spotted turtle Clemmys guttata 

Painted turtle Chrysemys picta 

Water snake Natrix sipedon 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Double crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus 

Common egret Casmerodlus albus 

Black crowned night heron Nycticorax nyctlcorax 

Wood duck Aix sponsa 

Red shouldered hawk Buteo lineatus 

Woodcock Philohela minor 

Barred owl Strix varia 

Pileated woodpecker Hylatomus pileatus 

Acadian flycatcher EmplHonax vlrescens 

Prothonotary warbler Protonotarla citrea 

Cardinal Rtchmondena cardinal Is 

Opossum Didelphts marsuplalls 



B-10 

Eastern cottontail Sylvllagus f loridanus 

Gray squirrel Sclurus carolinensls 

Flying squirrel Glaucomys volans 

Beaver Castor canadensis 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Black bear Ursus americanus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

River otter Lutra canadensis 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors include depth of water, 
duration of flooded condition, amount of peat developed, and 
occurrence of fire. 

Land Ecosystems 

Dune Community 

This major community type fringes the Atlantic Ocean 
encompassing the frontal dune complex which extends from the 
ocean side base of the foredune, inland through the often closely 
spaced, smaller, hummocky dunes. 

The community is usually dominated by perennial grasses 
with an occasional shrub or wind-shorn tree in protected areas. 
All of the species which persist here must have a certain degree 
of physiological salt tolerance to both salt spray and substrate 
salinity. They also must be able to withstand high winds and 
sand blasts, possess drought resistance, and be able to tolerate 
low levels of certain nutrients such as nitrogen. Physiologically, 
this is perhaps the harshest environment in the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain. 

Due to this harsh environment, the vegetation is sparse 
with sea rocket Cakile spp ., pigweed Amaranthus pumila and saltwort 
Salsola kali occurring on the beach and several grasses dominating 
on the dunes. American beachgrass Ammophila breviligulata , salt- 
meadow cordgrass Spartina patens , silver bunchgrass Panicum 
amarulum and running beachgrass Panicum amarum are the dominant 
grasses in the dune community. Herbaceous species gaining 
importance behind the foredune include beach pea Strophostyles 
helvola , sandbur Cenchrus tribuloldes , seaside spurge Euphorbia 
polygonif olia and various broomsedges Andropogon spp . 

Typical animals include: 

Horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus 
Ghost crab 
Coquina clam 



B-11 



Six lined racerunner Chemidophorus sexlineatus 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Sparrow hawk Falco sparverius 

Plovers Charadrius spp . and Squatarola squatarola 

Turnstone Arenaria interpres 

Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 

Sanderling Crocethia alba 

Gulls Larus spp . 

Terns Sterna spp . 

Horned lark Eremophilia alpestris 

Savanna sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis 

Ipswich sparrow Passerculus princeps 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus 

White footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus 

House mouse Mus musculus 

Meadow jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius 

The critical environmental factors in this community 

include high salinity (salt spray and substrate salinity), drought 

conditions (due to sandy soils, high winds, and high solar 
radiation), and low nutrient availability. 

Maritime Shrub Thicket 

This community occupies the area behind the dune community 
and is characterized by a dense growth of low shrubs, often tangled 
with numerous lianas. Usually the closed cover of the shrub thicket 
begins abruptly, with the shrubs massed on the ocean side of old 
dunes. The first shrubs are commonly prostrate and become progressively 
taller inland. The tops of these shrubs are closely sheared by wind- 
borne salt spray and form a smooth, compact surface gradually increas- 
ing in height inland. 

The dominant plants in this community include common wax 
myrtle Myrlca cerifera, groundsel Baccharis halmlfolia, shining 
sumac Rhus copallina redcedar Juniperus virginiana and marsh elder 
I^a frutescens . Important vines include Virginia creeper Parthenoclssus 
quinquefo] la . poison ivy Rhus radicans, green briar Smilax spp . and 
wild grape Vitis spp . Bayberry Myrica pennsylvanlca, as well as 
highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum are important shrub species 
(Hlggins et. al., 1971.) 

Typical animals include: 

Toads Bufo spp . 

Tree frogs Hyla spp . 

Six lined rarcrunner Cnemldophorus sexlineatus 



B-12 



Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Yellow shafted flicker Colaptes auratus 

Mockingbird Mlmus polyglottus 

Prairie warbler Dendroica discolor 

Red winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus 

Boat tailed grackle Cassidix mexicanus 

Meadowlark Sturnella magna 

Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus 

Opossum Dldelphis marsupialis 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

White footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus 

Meadow jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

The critical environmental factors in this community are 
basically the same as those of the dune community, however, they are 
less severe due to the protection afforded by the foredune complex. 

Maritime Forest 

This community type develops immediately behind the maritime 
shrub thicket community and consists of closely spaced trees. It 
occurs on the mainland and/or on offshore islands and barrier beaches. 
Although protected to some extent by large dunes and maritime shrub 
thicket, it is strongly influenced by salt spray blown in from the 
Atlantic Ocean (Wells, 1939; Boyce, 1954). 

The community is dominated by redcedar Juniperus virginiana , 
holly Ilex opaca , bear oak Quercus iliclfolia and pitch pine Pinus 
rigida . (Harshberger, 1900). 

Maritime forest normally develops on old dune systems and 
interdunal freshwater marshes and ponds are common. The presence 
of this freshwater supply allows for large populations of wildlife, 
many species not normally associated with forest communities. 

Typical animals include: 

Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina 

Eastern mud turtle Kinosternon sub rub rum 

Spotted turtle Clemmys guttata 

Ground skink Lygosoma laterale 

Five lined skink Eumeces fasciatus 

Water snake Natrix sipedon 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 



B-13 



Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Diamondback rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus 

Sharp shinned hawk Accipter striatus velox 

Red shouldered hawk Buteo llneatus 

Red tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis 

Whip poor will Caprimulgus vociferus 

Crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus 

Carolina wren Thryothorus ludovicianus 

White eyed vireo Vireo griseus 

Red eyed vireo Vireo olivaceus 

Parula warbler Parula americana 

Yellow throated warbler Dendroica dominica 

Pine warbler Dendroica pinus 

Cardinal Richmondena cardinalis 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis 

White footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

The critical environmental factors controlling this 
community are basically the same as those of the previous two 
communities, namely, high salinity, drought conditions, and low 
nutrient availability. However, this community has much less 
severe conditions than the previous communities discussed. 

Pine Flatwoods 

In the northern portion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain 
loblolly pine Pinus taeda , and pitch pine Pinus rigida become the 
dominants of the coastal flatwoods. Loblolly pine is particularly 
Important in Virginia while pitch pine dominates in Maryland. The 
pine flatwoods are generally rather open with an incomplete canopy 
but often have a diverse shrub and herb zone. 

Typical animals include: 

Eastern spadefoot Scaphiopus holbrooki 

Pine woods tree frog Hyla femoralis 

Green tree frog Hyla cinerea 

Box turtle Terrapene Carolina 

Fence liz.ard Sceloporus undulatus 

Six lined racerunner Cnemidophorus sexllneatus 

Ground sklnk Lygosoma laterale 

Five lined akink Eumeces fasclatus 

CornHnnke Elaphe guttata 



B-14 



Diamondback rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus 

Red tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis 

Broad winged hawk Buteo platypterus 

Bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus 

Mourning dove Zenaidura macroura 

Great horned owl Bubo virginianus 

Yellow shafted flicker Colaptes auratus 

Hairy woodpecker Dendrocopus villosus 

Downy woodpecker Dendrocopus pubescens 

Red cockaded woodpecker Dendrocopus borealis 

Brown headed nuthatch Sitta pusilla 

Eastern bluebird Sialia sialis 

Yellow throated warbler Dendroica dominica 

Pine warbler Dendroica dominica 

Pine warbler Dendroica pinus 

Prairie warbler Dendroica discolor 

Meadowlark Sturnella magna 

Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus 

Pine woods sparrow Aimophila aestivalis 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

Pine mouse Pitymys pinetorum 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 

White tailed deer Odocolleus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors governing the composition 
of this community include frequency of fire, drainage, and lack of 
local relief. 

Bottomland Hardwood Forest 

This community type is one of the most diverse terrestrial 
plant communities in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and is again, best 
developed in the southern section of that province. It occupies the 
floodplains of the major rivers, and is closely associated with the 
cypress-gum swamp forest. 

Behind a natural levee, three types of minor relief occur, 
low ridges, flats, and sloughs. The presence of a clay pan restricts 
drainage behind the levee and the flats and sloughs are flooded for 
varying lengths of time. Cypress-gum swamp forest occupies the 
sloughs and flats which remain flooded for long periods. The low 
ridges, however, being a few feet above the normal flood level are 
inundated only occasionally. Bottomland hardwood forest develops 
on these ridges and on the higher flats. On older floodplain 
terraces or second bottoms, this forest community attains its best 
development (Putnam et^. al . , 1960). 



B-15 



Typically the most important trees are sweetgum 
Liquidambar styracif lua , white oak Quercus alba, swamp chestnut 
oak Quercus michauxii , laurel oak Quercus laurifolia , water oak 
Quercus nigra , willow oak Quercus phellos , overcup oak Quercus 
lyrat a, pin oak Quercus palustris , Nuttall oak Quercus nuttalli , 
water ash Fraxinus caroliniana , winged elm Ulmus alata, American 
elm Ulmus americana , swamp tupelo Nyssa sylvatica var . biflora, 
red maple Acer rub rum , loblolly pine Pinus taeda and hackberry 
Celtis laevigata . Early successional stages, occurring close 
to the river, are dominated by cottonwood Populus deltoides and 
heterophvlla and black willow Salix nigra . 

Hotchkiss and Stewart (1947) indicate that beech 
Fagus grandifolia dominates in the mature bottomland hardwood 
forests of Maryland. On the smaller floodplains, especially 
in the northern section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, river 
birch Betula nigra , sycamore Platanus occidentalis , box elder 
Acer negundo and silver maple Acer saccharinum dominate the 
stream sides. 

The floodplain soils are quite rich due to the 
frequent addition of alluvium. Farmers have cleared much of 
the best drained bottomlands for cultivation and have reaped 
great benefits from this land. This, must be considered as a 
major threat to the survival of this forest as a community type. 

Animal species are also quite abundant in this community 
due to the presence of a large supply of foods. 

Typical animals include: 

Two lined salamander Eurycea bislineata 

Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei Fowleri 

Squirrel tree frog Hyla squirella 

Pine woods tree frog Hyla femoralis 

Green tree frog Hyla cinerea 

Bull frog Rana catesbeiana 

Box turtle Terrapene Carolina 

Broad headed skink Eumcces laticeps 

Water snake Natrlx slpodon 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Wood duck Aix sponsa 

Red shouldered hawk Buteo lineatus 

Bohwlilte quail Colinus virginlanus 

Turkey Meleagr is Kallopavo 

Woodcock Phllohela minor 

Barred owl Strix varia 



B-16 



Pileated woodpecker Hylatomus pileatus 

Red headed woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus 

Acadian flycatcher Empidonax virescens 

Prothonotary warbler Protonotaria cltrea 

Cardinal Richmondena cardinal is 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

Gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis 

Fox squirrel Sciurus niger 

Flying squirrel Glaucomys volans 

Beaver Castor canadensis 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Black bear Ursus americanus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Mink Mustela vison 

River Otter Lutra canadensis 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors controlling the composition 
of this community include duration of flooding, elevation and 
drainage of soil, occurrence of fire and length of time covered 
with vegetation. 

Upland Pine Forest 

This community type is here divided into two phases, 
Icblolly pine-shortleaf pine phase and pitch pine phase. The 
overall importance of this community in the uplands of the 
Atlantic Coastal Plain reflects the history of disturbance in 
this region. The community is successional in nature, being com- 
prised of a canopy of pines Pinus spp . and an understory of hard- 
woods usually dominated by oaks Quercus spp . 

The loblolly pine-shortleaf pine phase occupies the 
disturbed upland habitats and is definitely successional. It is 
generally associated with soils which possess more clay than the 
soils in the pine flatwoods which are generally quite sandy. 
Loblolly pine Pinus taeda in particular is the first tree species 
to invade abandoned lands. It may dominate the forest for more 
than 80 years before the climax hardwoods become dominant (Costing, 
1942). Shortleaf pine Pinus echinata , also a pioneer species, 
attains its best development in the drier habitats as on ridge 
tops. Except in the youngest stands, an understory of mixed hard- 
woods including white oak Quercus alba , scarlet oak Quercus coccinea , 
red oak Quercus rubra, black oak Quercus velutina , post oak Quercus 
stellata , southern red oak Quercus falcata , water oak Quercus nigra . 



B-17 



mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa , pignut hickory Carya glabra , 
black gum Nyssa sylvatica and sweetgum Liquidambar styracif lua 
occurs. Often the hickories appear late in succession. Scrub 
pine Pinus virginiana is also an important pioneer species, 
particularly in the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay region. 

The pitch pine phase dominates the disturbed uplands 
from Maryland north to Cape Cod along the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 
Associated with the pitch pine are blackjack oak Quercus 
marylandica , post oak Quercus stellata , black oak Quercus 
velutina and scarlet oak Quercus coccinea . The scrub oak 
Quercus ilicifolia is also a common associate on the drier 
sites. (McCormick, 1970). 

Typical animals include: 

Dusky salamander Desmognathus fuscus 

Red backed salamander Plethodon cinereus 

Slimy salamander Plethodon glutinosus 

Eastern spadefoot Scaphiopus holbrookl 

Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri 

Box turtle Terrapene Carolina 

Fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus 

Six lined racerunner Cnemidophorus sixlineatus 

Ground skink Lygosoma laterale 

Eastern garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Eastern coachwhip Mastigophis f lagellum 

Corn snake Elaphe guttata 

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Pine snake Pltuophis melanoleucus 

Copperhead Agklstrodon contortrix 

Timber rattlesnake Crotalus horridus 

Bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus 

Screech owl Otus asio 

Great horned owl Bubo virginianus 

Ruby throated hummingbird Archilochus colubris 

Eastern wood pewee Contopus virens 

Carolina chickadee Parus carollnensis 

Blue gray gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea 

White eyed vireo Vireo griseus 

Pine warbler Dendroica plnus 

Summer tanager Ptranga rubra 

Cardinal Rlchmondena cardlnalls 

Field sparrow Splzella pusilla 

Opossum Dldelphls marsupialls 

Masked shrew Sorex cinerea 



B-18 



Short tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda 

Common mole Scalopus aquaticus 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

Gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis 

Fox squirrel Sciurus niger 

Red squirrel Tamiasclurus hudsonicus 

Flying squirrel Glaucomys volans 

White fotted mouse Peromyscus leucopus 

Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus 

Pine vole Pitymys pinetorum 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 

Critical environmental factors determining the 
vegetational composition in this community include frequency 
of distrubance, water holding capacity of the soil, and fre- 
quency of fire. 

Upland Hardwood Forest 

This vegetational type is considered to be the climax 
vegetation in the upland regions of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 
In fact however, it is not particularly common on the Coastal 
Plain due to the frequency of disturbance there. The upland 
hardwood forest is dominated by various species of oak Quercus . 

The xeric or dry phase of this community type occurs 
primarily on the dry, sand ridges of the Coastal Plain. It is 
dominated by scrubby oaks which persist after the timbering or 
death of various pines, especially shortleaf pine Pinus echinata , 
acrub pine Pinus vlrginiana , and pitch pine Pinus rigida . On 
the more mesic sites, southern red oak Quercus falcata often 
dominates. Blackjack oak Quercus marylandica ,post oak Quercus 
stellata and scrub oak Quercus ilicifolia are the characteristic 
species however, pine is usually always present due to the 
frequency of fire and/or other disturbances. 

The intermediate phase of the upland hardwood forest 
Is the most common representative of this community type. In 
the northern section of the Coastal Plain, the dominant species 
include black oak Quercus velutina , chestnut oak Quercus prinus , 
white oak Quercus alba and scarlet oak Quercus coccinea with 
blackgum Nyssa sylvatica , post oak Quercus stellata and several 
hickories Carya spp . also being common. 



B-19 



The rich or mesic phase occurs only on the best sites, 
such as moist ravines. The most indicative species of this 
community is the beech Fagus grandifolia . Quarterman and 
Keever (1962) termed this community (in southern Coastal Plain) 
the Southern Mixed Hardwood Forest. They identify 14 species 
which are verv important and 10 taxa which are highly restricted 
to this community. The 14 species include beech Fagus grandifolia , 
white oak Quercus alba , sweetgum Llquidambar styraclflua , laurel 
oak Quercus laurifolia , southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora , 
water oak Quercus nigra , mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa, 
pignut hickory Carya glabra , loblolly pine Pinus , taeda , southern 
red oak Quercus falcata, blackgum Nyssa sylvatica , holly Ilex 
opaca , dogwood Cornus florida , and f arkleberry Vaccinium arbor eum . 

Typical animals include: 

Dusky salamander Desmognathus fuscus 

Red backed salamander Plethodon cinereus 

Slimy salamander Plethodon cinereus 

Two lined salamander Eurycea bislineata 

Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei forleri 

Box turtle Terrapene Carolina 

Ground skink Lygosoma laterale 

Broad headed skink Eumeces laticeps 

Eastern garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis 

Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix 

Red shouldered hawk Buteo lineatus 

Red tailed hawk Buteo jamalcensis 

Broad winged hawk Buteo platypterus 

Bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus 

Turkey Meleagris gallopavo 

Screech owl Otus asio 

Great horned owl Bubo virginianus 

Ruby throated hummingbird Archilochus colubris 

Yellow shafted flicker Colaptes auratus 

Plleated woodpecker Hylatomus pileatus 

Red headed woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus 

Hairy woodpecker Dendrocopus vlllosus 

Downy woodpecker Dendrocopus pubescens 

Acadian flycatcher Empidonax virescens 

Eastern wood pewee Contopus virens 

Crested flycatcher Mylarchus crinltus 

Common crow Corvus brachyrhynos 

Blue jay Cyanocltta crlstata 

Tufted titmouse Parus bicolor 

Carolina chickadee Parus carollnensis 



B-20 



White breasted nuthatch Sltta carolinensls 

Carolina wren Thryothorus ludovicanus 

Wood thrust Hylocichla mustelina 

Yellow throated vireo Vireo f lavif rons 

Red eyed vireo Vireo olivaceus 

Black and white warbler Mniotilta varia 

Oven bird Seiurus aurocapillus 

Hooded warbler Wilsonia citrina 

Summer tanager Piranga rubra 

Cardinal Richmondena cardinalis 

Slate colored junco Junco hy emails 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis 

Masked shrew Sorex cinereus 

Short tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f loridanus 

Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus 

Gray squirrel Seiurus carolinensls 

Fox squirrel Seiurus niger 

Flying squirrel Glaucomys volans 

White footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus 

Pine vole Pitymys pinetorum 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 

Long tailed weasel Mustela frenata 

Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis 

White tailed deer Odocoileus virglnianus 

Critical environmental factors controlling the character 
of this community include water holding capacity of the soil, 
frequency of disturbance, and topography. 

Old Field Community 

This is a community type which occurs over the entire 
Atlantic Coastal Plain in almost all upland situations. The old 
field community develops on abandoned lands, particularly 
agricultural lands . 

The vegetational composition of these old fields is 
largely dependent on the amount of time since abandonment. 
Immediately following abandonment weeds invade the land including 
crabgrass Dlgitaria sanguinalis and horseweed Erigeron canadensis . 
The first year after abandonment, old fields are totally domi- 
nated by horseweed. The next few years the old field community 
is dominated by white aster Aster pilosus . During this time, 
broomsedge Andropogon virginicus appears and begins to spread 
until it eventually dominates the old field community. During 
the broomsedge stage, young pines begin to appear in the fields 
and eventually as they grow their crowns meet and a closed 
canopy develops. Once this occurs the broomsedge will become 



B-21 



uncommon as it cannot survive under the dense shade produced by 
the closed canopy. As the pines grow the community type changes 
to a pine flatwoods or upland pine forest community and if 
there is little or no further disturbance upland hardwood 
forest becomes the climax vegetation. This sequence of changes 
is occurring throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain and is called 
secondary succession or old field succession. 

Typical animals of the early stages include: 

Fowler ' s toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri 

American toad Bufo amerlcanus 

Six lined racerunner Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 

Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Red shouldered hawk Buteo lineatus 

Red tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis 

Marsh hawk Circus cyaneus 

Bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus 

Mourning dove Zenaidura macroura 

White eyed vireo Vireo griseus 

Prairie warbler Dendroica discolor 

Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas 

Yellow breasted chat Icteria vlrens 

Meadowlark Sturnella magna 

Cardinal Richmondena cardinalis 

Towhee Pipllo erythrophthalmus 

Savanna sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis 

Grasshopper sparrow Ammodramus savannarum 

Bachman's sparrow Almophila aestivalis bachmanii 

Field sparrow Splzella pusllla 

Opossum Dldelphis marsuplalis 

Short tailed shrew Blarlna brevlcauda 

Least shrew Cryptotis parva 

Common mole Scalopus aquatlcus 

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus f lorldanus 

White footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus 

Meadow Jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius 

Housemouse Mus musculus 

Meadow vole Mlcrotus pennsylvanlcus 

Long tailed weasel Mustela f renata 

Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis 

Red fox Vulpes vulpes 

Critical environmental factors determining its vegetatlonal 
composition Include length of time left abandoned, low soil water 
holding capacity, low soil nutrient status and frequency of disturb- 
ance. It has been shown that allelopathy or "Chemical warfare 
between plants" occurs In the early stages of succession (Keever, 
1950) and thus this is a critical environmental factor. 



B-22 

REFERENCES 



Bernard, J. M. and F. A. Bernard. 1971. Mature upland forests 
of Cape May County, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
98(3):167-171. 

Boyce, S. E. 1954. The salt spray community. Ecol. Monogr. 
24(l):29-67. 

Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. 
Hafner Publishing Company, Inc., New York, p. 596. 

Buell, M. F. and R. L. Cain. 1943. The successional role of 
Southern l^ite Cedar, Chamaecyparis thvoldes , in south- 
eastern North Carolina. Ecol. 24(l):85-93. 

Burt, W. H. and R. P. Grossenheider . 1964. A field guide to the 
mammals. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, p. 284. 

Conant, R, 1958. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians, 
Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, p. 366. 

Fenneman, N. M. 1938. Physiography of eastern United States. 
McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New York, p. 714. 

Gerlach, A. C. (ed) . 1970. The national atlas of the United 
States of America. U. S. Government Printing Office., 
Washington, D. C. p. 417. 

Golley, F. B. 1962. Mammals of Georgia. University of Georgia 
Press, Athens, Georgia, p. 218. 

Hamilton, W. J. Jr. 1943. The mammals of eastern United States, 
Comstock Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York, p. 432. 

Hammond, E. H. 1964. Classes of land surface form in the forty- 
eight states, U.S.A. . Annals of the Assoc, of Amer. 
Geographers 54(1): map supplement no. 4. 

Kandley, C. 0. Jr. and C. P. Patton. 1947. Wild mammals of 
Virginia. Commonwealth of Virginia, Comm. of Game and 
Inland Fisheries, Richmond, Virginia, p. 220. 

Harshherger, J. W. 1900. An ecological study of the New Jersey 
strand flora. Proc. of the Acad, of Nat. Sciences of 
Phila. 52:623-671. 



B-23 

Higgins, E.A.T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora 

and ecology of Assateague Island. Univ. of Maryland Agriculture 
Experiment Station Bull. No. A-172. Univ. of Maryland, College 
Park, Md. p. 70. 

Hotchkiss, N. and R. E. Stewart. 1947. Vegetation of the Patuxent 
Research Refuge, Maryland. Ainer. Midi. Nat. 38(l):l-75. 

Keever, C. 1950. Causes of succession on old fields of the Piedmont, 
North Carolina. Ecol. Monogr. 20:229-250. 

Kellogg, C. (ed.). 1957. Soil — The 1957 yearbook of agriculture. 
U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. p. 784. 

Laessle, A. M. 1958. The origin and successional relationships of 
sandhill vegetation and sand-pine scrub. Ecol. Monogr. 
28(4):361-387. 

McCormick, J. 1970. The pine barrens: A preliminary ecological 
inventory. New Jersey State Museum Report No. 2. 

Monk, C. D. 1965. Southern mixed hardwood forest of northcentral 
Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 35:335-354. 

Monk, C. D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of 
the forest vegetation of north central Florida. Amer. Midi. 
Nat. 79(2):441-457. 

Monk, C. D. and T. W. Brown. 1965. Ecological considetations of 
cypress heads in northcentral Florida. Amer. Midi. Nat. 
74(1):126-140. 

Murray, G. E. 1961. Geology of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal 

Province of North America. Harper and Brothers, New York, 
p. 692. 

Costing, H. J. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant communities 
of Piedmont, North Carolina. Amer. Midi. Nat. 28(1):1-126. 

Costing, H. J. 1954. Ecological processes and vegetation of the 

maritime strand in the southeastern United States. Bot. Rev. 
20(4) :226-262. ' 

Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Bot. Rev. 
18(6):413-446. 

Peterson, R. T. 1947. A field guide to the birds. Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston, p. 230. 

Proiuy, W. F. 1952. Carolina bavs and their origin. Ceol. Soc. 
Amerc. R.iU. 6") :?yj7 ->,?/. . 



B-24 

Putnam, J. A. ,G. M. Furnlval , and J. S. McKnight . 1960. 

Management and Inventory of southern hardwoods. Agriculture 
Handbook No. 181. U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. p. 102. 

Quarterman, E. and C. Keever. 1962. Southern mixed hardwood 
forest: Climax in the southeastern Coastal Plain, U.S.A.. 
Ecol. Monogr. 32:167-185. 

Shelford, V. E. 1963. The ecology of North America. Univ. of 
Illinois Press, Urbana, 111., p. 610. 

Slrkin, L. A. 1972. Origin and history of Maple Bog in the 

Sunken Forest, Fire Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot . 
Club 99:131-135. 

Smith, R. L. 1966. Ecology and field biology. Harper and Row, 
Publishers, New York, p. 686. 

Trewartha, G. T. 1954. An introduction to climate. McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., New York, p. 402. 

Wells, B. W. 1939. A new forest climax: The salt spray climax 
of Smith Island. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66:629-634. 

Wells, B. W. and I. V. Shunk. 1931. The vegetation and habitat 
factors of the coarser sands of the"North Carolina Coastal 
Plain: An ecological study. Ecol. Monogr. 1:465-521. 



APPENDIX C 

RARE, ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE SPECIES 
OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 



by 
Anne LaBastille, Ph.D. 



Center for Natural Areas 

Ecology Program 
Smithsonian Institution 

April, 1973 



RARE, ENDANGERED, AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE SPECIES IN THE CHESAPEAKE 

BAY REGION 



INTRODUCTION 

This report is part of a larger series of reports dealing with 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Maine Coast as part of a coordinated 
effort to identify and analyze conservation priorities and selection of 
natural areas and landmarks along the east coast of the United States. 

The Chesapeake Bay region, being one of the most outstanding 
because of its natural resource values and its proximity to large 
metropolitan complexes, was given special attention. This project 
was originated by The Nature Conservancy, in conjunction with the 
Chesapeake Bay Foundation, and was carried out by the Smithsonian 
Center for Natural Areas. 

This report deals with rare, endangered, and threatened vertebrate 
animals occurring in the Chesapeake Bay area. Geographically the area 
is delineated by U. S. Highway 13 on the east, the North Carolina/ 
Virginia state line to the south, the Fall Line or Interstate 95 on 
the west and north. This includes the Bay and its tributaries roughly 
to the limit of tidal influence. 

A series of base maps has been developed by the Smithsonian 
Center for Natural Areas showing significant ecological data along the 
Atlantic Coastal Plain. A special set of maps of the Chesapeake Bay 
region indicates detailed zoological factors and sites where rare, 
endangered, or threatened fish and wildlife occur. Areas harboring 
such species have been given high rating among the conservation 
priorities in selecting natural areas for preservation. 

SCOPE OF REPORT 

The report summarizes existing and current information on rare, 
endangered, and threatened species of fish, amphibians, reptiles, 
birds, and mammals which occur in the Chesapeake Bay region. Included 
are species which are recognized on the U. S. Department of Interior's 
federal registry of endangered animals; and also species which are 
apparently experiencing rapid depletion in numbers and may be threatened. 
The data presented cover the status, estimated numbers, present distri- 
bution, reasons for decline, ecological values, and conservation 
measures taken or proposed for those species listed below. This 
information is presented in the same format as the U. S. Department of 
Interior's Redbook, "Threatened Wildlife of the United States", and 
the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 
(I.U.C.N.), Red Data Books. 



C-1 



C-2 



METHODOLOGY 

Data were assembled by contacting competent persons known 
to be experts on particular species or groups of species. 
Contact was made by personal interview, by telephone, and by a 
three-page questionnaire asking for detailed information on 
rare, endangered, or threatened species. This material was 
then compiled on the following data sheets. 

The significant literature was reviewed, with emphasis 
placed on more recent papers and books (from 1960 to 1973). 
Since a time lag often exists between gathering of data and 
its publication, the most-up-to-date information was obtained 
through personal communication. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES 

There are not many rare, endangered, or threatened 
species of vertebrate animals in the Chesapeake Bay region. 
Those that occur there are dependent in part on the presence 
of natural and undisturbed habitats, and also on the broader 
aspect of uncontaminated environmental conditions. This is 
particularly Important to birds of prey which are dependent on 
a long food chain, and where they may accumulate high levels 
of persistent chemicals. Chesapeake Bay is especially important 
as a nesting area for the endangered southern subspecies of the bald 
eagles and for ospreys. Both species reach relatively high con- 
centrations in this area. 



CLASSIFICATION OF Ri\RE, ENDANCF.RED. AND THREATENED FISH AND WILDLIFE 



SPECIES 


IN CHESAPEAKE 


BAY 


REGION 






Rarity 


Classification 


Species Name 


USDI 




lUCN 




Delmarva Fox Squirrel 


Endangered 




l(b)R 




Southern Bald Eagle 


Endangered 




2(b)P* 




Osprey 








Threatened 
(Amer. Birds, 1973) 


Arctic Peregrine Falcon 


Endangered 








Ipswich Sparrow 


Rare 




2(a)P* 




Bog Turtle 


Rare 




2(a) 




Sea Turtles: 










Green 


Threatened 




3(a)PT 




Loggerhead 






3(a)PT 




Leatherback 










Hawksbill 






l(a)PT 




Atlantic Ridley 










Maryland Darter 


Endangered 




2(a)S 


Endangered 
(Miller, 1972) 


Key to Classification on 


lUCN List: 









(a) = full species 

(b) = subspecies 

* = denotes species or subspecies critically endangered 

1 = endangered 

2 = rare 

3 = depleted 

T = subject to substantial export trade 

P = legally protected, at least in some parts of its range 

S = secrecy still desirable 

Reference to List : 

American Birds, 1973 (in press). The Blue List for 1973: (an 
early warning system for birds). 

I. U.C.N. 1971 (Rev.) Red Data Books, vol. 1-4: (Pisces, Amphibia 
and Reptiles, Aves, Mammalia) Morges 1110, Switzerland. 

Miller, R. R. 1972. Threatened freshwater fishes of the United 
States. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc, Vol. 101 (2):239-252. 



U. S.D.I. 1973. Threatened Wildlife of the United States. Office 
of Endangered Species and International Ai i Ivitles, Bureau Sport 
Fisheries and Wildlife. 



DELMARVA FOX SQUIRREL 

or 

Bryants Fox Squirrel 



Order : RODENTIA 
Family: SCIURIDAE 



C-4 



Sciurus niger cinereus (Linnaeus) 

Sciurus niger bryanti 

Sciurus niger neglectus (Gray)'- 



Estimated Numbers : About 500+ are known, and may be 1000+, but no total 
estimates are available. In 1964, Linduska estimated the population in 
the low thousands • 

Present Distribution : These squirrels are found only in four Maryland 
counties, with certainty, plus one isolated record on the county line 
of Caroline/Talbot County. Introductions were made in one area at 
Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia. The main range is 
50 to 75 miles x 25 miles. These are plotted in the map of zoological 
factors of ecological importance (Map 2). 

Kent County - Eastern Neck Island and Eastern Neck National Wild- 
life Refuge^ found in grain fields and woodlands and marsh on 
refuge, especially along Hickory Ridge. There is an estimate of 
250+ squirrels (Refuge Manager, 1972). Possibly a few still occur 
on land owned by Eugene DuPont near Rock Hall, but no recent 
records. 



Queen Anne County - On Wye Island about 75 acres of loblolly 
pine near Wye River with an estimate of several squirrels. 
Possibly also at Wye Mills; possibly also near Church Hill. 

Talbot County - near Trappe along Choptank River (Walsh, 1973; 
Flyger, 1973); at head of Miles River (duPont McConnell, 1973); 
possibly around Bruceville, Windy Hill and Barber areas - the 
latter being along the LaTrappe River and creek with no name 
north of Choptank River (Walsh, 1973). Possibly at Little Neck 
and Island Creek Neck area (Walsh, 1973). 

Dorchester County - Drawbridge area (Flyger, 1973); Walsh, 1973; 
also suggested from Presque Isle, Vienna, Ellicott and Steele 
Neck (Walsh, 1973) Linkwood State Wildlife Management Area has an 
area of 300 acres but few squirrels were estimated (Germany, 1972) 

Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge - There are 11,300 acres with 
about 400 to 500 acres wooded and suitable for squirrel habitat 
with an estimate of 150+ squirrels (Julien and Germany, 1972). 



C-5 



The squirrels are usually found in ratio of one to three with 
Gray Squirrels (the latter predominating.) In one census 142 
nests were counted, but this is^oor indicator since one 
squirrel or pair of squirrels may make more than one nest. On 
a 52 acre sample plot on the Refuge, 15 Dalmarva Fox Squirrels 
were trapped and released (8 females, 7 males). An estimated 18 
squirrels for the plot was calculated. Population density based 
on trap-recapture census study at Blackwater N.W.R. indicates 
that .37 Fox Squirrels occur per acre; or one squirrel needs 
about four acres of habitat, depending on mast crops. (Germany 
and Julien, 1972). It is also'" suggested that squirrels occur 
outside the Refuge in Kentuck and Greenbriar Swamps. 

L'Compte State Wildlife Refuge contains 500 acres but few 
squirrels. Although this is supposedly a Fox Squirrel sanctuary, 
the area is not being managed for their benefit. 

Piney Swamp, north of Blackwater River, has also been suggested 
as a squirrel habitat. 

Caroline County - Only one record, but as mentioned above only a 
few squirrels were estimated. 

Somerset County - It was suggested that Big Swamp next to an 
existing wildlife management plot may have some squirrels 
(Rivinus, 1972) but no proof exists. 

Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge : Delmarva Fox Squirrels 
are not known to exist here in the past, although they might have 
been within the overall range. Squirrels were introduced in 
March, 1968, 14 squirrels (7 females, 7 males), but several died. 
Another introduction made in January, 1971, of 23 squirrels, but 
5 died. There are 600 acres of marginal to fair habitat between 
Sow Ponds, along ridge of White Hills, to Tom's Cove. This is 
a total area of 2.6 x .5 miles. A young squirrel was seen in 
January 1972 and in the fall of 1972, (Appel, 1972), (Julien and 
Germany, 1972). It is estimated that 4 to 5 years may be 
necessary to build up a viable population; however, squirrels 
are not doing well and may die out completely. 

Note : Good stands of mature to old loblolly pine and also pine 
mixed with hardwoods are preferred by squirrels. Some large 
timber exists In private estates on the peninsulas west of Rt. 
33 near St. Michaels and Royal Oak. Inquiry did not disclose 
whether squirrels have ever been seen here. 



C-6 



Status: Classified as endangered by U. S. Department of Interior. 
Considered to be threatened with extinction (Flyger, 1973). May be 
thought of as a threatened "island form" because of restricted range 
on Delmarva Peninsula. The populations are decreasing fairly rapidly. 

Reasons for Decline : 

1. Encroachment on habitat by real estate (vacation homes, etc.) 
and agriculture. 

2. Heavy cutting of pine and hardwood stands during 1880 's and again 
at present. State forestry policy encourages woodlot owners to cut 
their mature hardwood stands and plant quick-growing loblolly pine 

for marketing. 

3. Fires destroy habitat. 

4. Indiscriminate hunting and poaching, and occasional confusion 
by hunters between Delmarva Fox Squirrel and Eastern Grey Squirrel 
Sciurus carolinensis , because they have no knowledge of different 
characteristics. Also, juvenile Fox Squirrels may be mistaken for 
Grey Squirrels. 

One pair of captive squirrels is being held at Remington 
Farms, Chestertown, Md. , for breeding purposes. Squirrels have been 
held for 4 years and have not yet produced young. (Galbraith, 1973). 

Protective Measures Taken : 

1. Establishment of Blackwater and Eastern Neck National Wild- 
life Refuges; plus the L' Compote State Wildlife Management Arec. (1970) 
where squirrels find sanctuary and their habitat is protected. 

2. State of Maryland banned hunting Delmarva Fox Squirrels in 
1971 and Imposed a $50 fine for taking them. 

3. Introduction to Chincoteague N.W.R. in 1968 and 1971 to pro- 
vide a breeding nucleus on federally protected lands. 

4. Research is being conducted at the University of Maryland by 
Dr. V. Flyger and Mr. G. Taylor. 

Protective Measures Proposed : 

1. Stop logging mature stands of loblolly Pinus taeda and hard- 
woods where good squirrel habitat exists. Another incentive might be 
offered for leaving land in woodland condition. 



C-7 



2. Acquire untouched areas of Kentuck and Greenbriar Swamps 
adjoining the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge which contain good 
squirrel habitat and possibly squirrels. Also try to investigate 
and acquire habitat on LaTrappe Creek and Big Swamp. An attempt 
should be made to acquire, (if not too late) the Wye Mills or Wye 
Island land since this is proposed to be developed into five-acre 
housing lots. 

3. L'Compte State Wildlife Management Area should be managed 
specifically for squirrels, not for other species of game. 

4. Develop further research efforts into distribution, 
behavior, limiting factors, and optimum habitat conditions for the 
species. 

5. Breed in captivity if possible so as to have extra stock; 
release into wild to restock good habitat. 

6. Public education to help people differentiate between Grey 
and Fox Squirrels so that they will not hunt the wrong species, nor 
molest them in other ways. 

Ecological Significance : 

1. A beautiful and unique mammal. 

2. Sport hunting, wildlife photography, nature viewing. 

3. Serves as prey species for several forms of predators 
(owls, hawks, foxes, eagles, etc.) 

4. Squirrels plant seeds of mast trees and help forest 
reproduction. 

5. The enzyme defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway is the 
same in the Fox Squirrel Sciurus niger as in porphyric cattle and 
human beings. Therefore, members of this species can provide a 
small animal laboratory model for studies of congenital erythro- 
poietic porphyria (a hereditary disease of humans and cattle) 
associated with a similar partial deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III 
cosynthetase (Levin and Flyger, 1971). 



C-8 



References : (Personal communication) 

Dr. Vagn Flyger, Institute of Natural Resources, University of 
Maryland, College Park, Md. 

Mr. Galbraith, Asst. Mg., Remington Farms, Chestertown, Md. 

Mr. Bob Germany, Asst. Mgr., Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Cambridge, Md. 

Mr. W. Jullen, Refuge Mgr., Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Cambridge, Md. 

Mrs. Jean duPont McConnell, (estate owner near St. Michaels), %120 
120 Delaware Trust Bldg., Wilmington, Del., 19801. 

Refuge Manager (former). Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge, 
Rock Hall, Md. 

Rivinus, Edward F. Aug. 22, 1972, and Nov. 3, 1972. Office memo 
to Office of Environmental Sciences, Smithsonian Institution. 

Gary Taylor, graduate student. Institute of Natural Resources, 
University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 

Mr. Mike Walsh, game warden, Md. State Dept. Natural Resources, 
Talbot County, Md. 

Literature: 



Flyger, Vagn. 1964. Urban Sprawl endangers native Maryland 
mammals. Maryland Conservationist. 41(3) :6-7. 

Levin, E. Y. and V. Flyger. 1971. Uroporphyrinogen III 
cosynthetase activity in the Fox Squirrel Sciurus niger . Science 
174:59-60. 

Linduska, J. P. Apr. 9, 1964. in litt . Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife, Dept. of Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Miller, G. S., Jr. and R. Kellogg. 1955. List of North American 
Recent Mammals. U. S. Natl, Museum. Bull. 205, Washington, B.C. 

Paradise, J. L. 1969. Mammals of Maryland. North American Fauna 
66: 193 pp. 

Rhodes, L. 1971. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel study - first 
report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. Unpublished 
report. 19 p. 



C-9 



SOUTHERN BALD EAGLE Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus 
Order: FALCONIFORMES 
Family: ACCIPITRIDAE 



Estimated Numbers : The Chesapeake Bay region has had a population of 
about 65 pairs of eagles since the mld-1960's, following a 60 percent 
reduction in nesting pairs. (Abbott, 1971). 

1972 - 40 breeding pairs (Natl. Audubon Soc, pers. comm. 1972). 

1972 - 58 active nests; 20 young hatched; 1.3 young/successful 

nest; 32% hatching success of rechecked nests (Abbott, 1972) 

1971 - 56 active nests; 26 young hatched; 1.2 young/successful 
nest; 35.7% hatching success of rechecked nests (Abbott, 
1971). 

1970 - 58 active nests; 22 young hatched; 1.3 young/successful 
nest; 32.6% hatching success of rechecked nests (Abbott, 
1970). 

1969 - 50 active nests; 29 young hatched; 1.5 young/successful 
nest; 38.8% hatching success of rechecked nests (Abbott, 
1969). 

1966 - 70 pairs (Natl. Audubon Soc, 1966). 

1936 - 200 pairs of eagles; 250 active nests (Abbott, 1965); 
1.8 young/successful nest (Sprunt, 1973). 

Present Distribution : 

See map 2, and reports at Smithsonian Institution with detailed 
locations of eagle nests (active and inactive) for Chesapeake Bay 
region (1970-1973), provided by Jackson Abbott. A total of 89 nest 
sites (not all active in one year): 4 in Delaware, 45 in Maryland; and 
41 in Virginia. The region is the most productive area for Southern 
Bald Eagles north of Florida. 



C-10 



Mason's Neck National Wildlife Refuge - contains 904 acres of 
federal land with 4000 acres collectively protected by State and 
other lands on Mason Neck. The area has a year-round concentration 
of eagles, both winter and summer roosters, and a few nesters. 
Some artificial nest platforms have been installed for eagle use. 
There are usually 12 to 20 adult birds in the area. Recently up 
to 4 pairs nested; now only one pair, (Julien, 1972). No nests 
are on the N. W. Refuge, but one site close by on State land. 

Assateague Island National Seashore - occasional sightings only 
(Norris, 1973). 

Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge - one or two seen each year; 
used to be fairly common as a wintering bird. None nesting now, 
(Appel, 1972). 

Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge - one or two seen each year; 
but they used to be fairly common as a wintering bird. None are 
nesting now. (Appel, 1972) . 

Blackwater N.W.R . - Has densest population of breeding eagles in 
Chesapeake Bay area. In 1972, 3 nests on Refuge lands; 1971, 7 
nests on Refuge and adjacent lands, (Julien, 1972). 

Status : Endangered - on U. S. Dept. of Interior federal list of 
endangered species. Seriously threatened and declining. A long-term 
trend downwards in numbers. A shift in location of nesting activities 
has accompanied the decline in numbers. Eagles have disappeared from 
upper parts of the tributaries and rivers and the upper part of the 
Bay. They now concentrate near river estuaries and in the lower part 
of the Bay. Pollutants here seem to be more diluted and dispersed due 
to the action of currents; therefore, the food supply is better, 
(Abbott, 1965, 1971). 

Reasons for Decline : 

1. Trauma, primarily from shooting, is one of the greatest, if not 
the greatest, cause of mortality among eagles, (Coon, et.al., 1970). 

2. Concentrations of pesticides and their metabolites which are 
probably major factors causing decrease in Bald Eagle populations 
through egg-shell thinning from non-lethal amounts of DDE and other 
metabolites, or by direct mortality by lethal amounts, (see literature 
references on contamination) . 

3. Pollution of waterways (feeding areas) which limits fish 
(food supply) of eagles. 



C-11 



4. Removal of habitat and nest sites around the bay by farming, 
real estate development, encroachment of power transmission lines, and 
lumbering of tidewater forests. 

5. Reproductive rate is below that considered necessary to main- 
tain the population. A 50% fledgling rate is needed, or at least one 
fledged young per nest, for stable populations. In the Chesapeake Bay 
area, however, the fledgling rate is only 5 to 35% (Abbott, 1971). 
According to Sprunt (1969) and Sprunt ejt al. (1966), nesting success is 
only 15% here. 

Protective Measures Taken : 

1. Protection by federal law and fine of $500 for killing an eagle. 
Laws to prohibit shooting. 

2. Removal of bounty for eagles (which Alaska had for years). 

3. Intensive investigations into pesticide and other chemical 
contamination of eagles and eagle eggs, their biology, distribution, 
behavior, etc. being carried out by Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 
National Audubon Soc. , State fish and game departments, etc. Investi- 
gations into artificial breeding programs. 

4. Censuses are being made annually by Jackson Abbott, Fred 
Scott, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, and others to locate 
nest sites around Chesapeake Bay and determine activity, productivity, 
etc. Usually two airplane flights are made per breeding season. 

5. Continued protection and acquisition of nest sites where not 
owned by federal or state conservation agencies to avoid destruction 
or disturbance to nesting eagles. In some cases, as in Maine and 
Florida, individual agreements are reached with private landowners to 
protect nest sites and birds. 

6. Continued protection on federal and state refuges. 
Protective Measures Proposed : 

1. Acquisition of all known nest sites around Chesapeake Bay 
area as sanctuaries. 

2. Continued research on, and control of, environmental contam- 
inants, especially pesticides and PCB's which can effect eagle repro- 
duction. 

3. Increased public education and Involvement In saving the 
species. 



C-12 



4. Continued research on eagle behavior and reproduction, plus 
emphasis on captive breeding programs. 

5. Increased enforcement of eagle laws and increased punish- 
ment of offenders. 

6. Water pollution abatement. 

7. Proper safe-guards on power lines to prevent electrocution, 
where needed. 

Ecological Significance and General Value : 

1. U. S. National symbol - with all accompanying traditional, 
cultural, aesthetic, historical, symbolic and inspirational qualities 
with which this bird is imbued. 

2. Important indicator species to monitor effects of pesticides 
and other environmental contaminants. 

3. Predation and maintenance of healthy prey populations. 

4. Bird-watching as a popular past-time, plus wildlife 
photography. 

5. Political expediency to "save" the species. 

6. Excellent educational tool to teach conservation attitudes 
to children. 

References : (personal communication) 

Mr. Jackson Abbott, 8501 Doter Drive, Alexandria, Va. 22308. 

Mr. J. Appel, Refuge Manager, Chincoteague National Wildlife 
Refuge, Box 62, Chincoteague, Va. 23336. 

Mr. W. Julien, Refuge Manager, Blackwater National Wildlife 
Refuge, Cambridge, Maryland. 

National Audubon Society, Research Division, 115 Indian Mound 
Trail, Tavernier, Fla. 33070. 

Mr. Thomas Norris, Jr., Superintendent, Assateague Island 
National Seashore, Rt. 2, Box 294, Berlin, Md. 21811. 

A. Sprunt. 1969. Population trends of the bald eagle in North 



C-13 



America, p. 347-351. In Peregrine Falcon Populations: their 
biology and decline. J, J. Hickey (ed.) Univ. of Wisconsin 
Press, Madison, Wise. 

A. Sprunt and F. J. Ligas, 1966. Audubon bald eagle studies, 
1960-1966. National Audubon Soc, N. Y. 6 p. 

C. Snow. 1973. Habitat management series for endangered species. 
Southern Bald Eagle and Northern Bald Eagle. Report No. 5, 
Technical Note. Bureau Lane Mgt., U.S.D.I., Denver Public Library, 
Denver, Colorado. 



Literature: 



Abbott, J. M. 1965. The Chesapeake Bald Eagles: Summary report, 

1936, 1955-1965. Atl. Nat., vol. 22(l):20-25. 

Abbott, J. M. 1967. Bald Eagle Nesting report, Chesapeake Bay 

region. Atlantic Naturalist, vol. 23(1) :19. 

Abbott, J. M. 1968. Bald Eagle Nesting report, Chesapeake Bay 

region. Atlantic Naturalist, vol. 24(1) :18. 

Abbott, J. M. 1969. Bald Eagle Nesting report, Chesapeake Bay 

region. Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 24(4) :212. 

Abbott, J. M. 1970. American Eagle nest survey of the Chesapeake 

Bay region. 

Abbott, J. M. 1971. American Eagle nest survey of the Chesapeake 

Bay region. 

Abbott, J. M. 1972. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle nest survey. 

Coon, Locke, Cromartee and Reichel. 1970. Causes of Bald Eagle 
mortaility - 1960 - 1965. Jour. Wildlife Diseases, vol. 6:72-76. 

Mulhern, Reichel, Locke, Lamont, Belisle, Cromartie, Bagley and 
Prouty. 1970. Organochlorine residues and autopsy data from 
Bald Eagles. Pesticides Monitoring Jour. vol. 4(3) : 141-144 . 

National Audubon Soc. 1966. Bald Eagle Studies - 1960-1966. 
Research Department., Indian Mound Trail, Tavernier, Fla. Mimeo 
copy. 6 p. 

Sprunt, A. IV, et al. 1973. Comparative productivity of six Bald 
Ea>;lc populations. Paper presented at North American Wildlife 
Conference, March 19, 1973, Washington, D. C. 



C-14 



Weimeyer, Mulhern, Ligas, Hensel, Mathisen, Robards and Postupalsky. 
1972. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated 
biphenyls, and mercury in Bald Eagle eggs and changes in shell 
thickness - 1969 and 1970. Pesticide Monitoring Jour. vol. 6(1): 
50-55. 



C-15 



OSPREY Pandion haliaetus 
Order : FALCONIFORMES 
Family : PANDIONIDAE 



Estimated Numbers; 

Virginia = 500 plus pairs; in 1972, 390 nests, 130 known 
productive nests, 262 known young produced, 209 
known fledglings (Byrd, 1973). 

Delaware = 25 to 30 pairs 

Maryland = 750 pairs + 

Chesapeake Bay has largest known population in North America 

Present Distribution : 

Virginia - See map 2 of locations of nest sites provided by 
Dr. M. Byrd, Dept. of Biology, College of William 
and Mary, Williamsburg, Va. Also see Table I, Pro- 
ceedings of the first North American Osprey research 
conference (Byrd, 1973). 

Delaware - Information available at Delaware Dept. Natural 

Resources and Environmental Control (Lesser, 1973); 
however, many of the sites are outside Chesapeake 
Bay drainage. 

Maryland - See map 2, with nest site locations provided by Mr. 
Stan Wiemeyer, Research Biologist, Patuxent Wild- 
life Research Center, Laurel, Md.; and by Mr. Jan 
Reese, researcher, St. Michaels, Md. 



Selected Areas with Active Nests : 

Virginia - James River 

Chlckahominy River 
York River 
Mobjack Bay 
New Ft. Comfort 
Rappahannock River 
Fleets Bay 



1970 



1971 



3 


6 


- 


12 


11 


28 


15 


17 


50 


45 


57 


77 


17 


29 



C-16 



1970 1971 
Eastern Shore 

Atlantic Side 41 46 

Eastern Shore 

Ches.Bay Side - 49 



Total Active Nests 194 309 

Maryland/Virginia - Lower Potomac' River east of Rt. 301 
(Wiemeyer, 1972) 

Maryland Shore - 100 pairs 

Virginia Shore - 40 pairs 

Pt. Lookout at 

mouth of Potomac 

River - 20+ pairs 

Smith Pt. at 

mouth - 20-30 pairs 

Maryland - lower part of Patuxent River - 10+ pairs 
(Wiemeyer, 1972) 

from Cove Pt. at mouth of Patuxent To Fair Haven, 

south of Annapolis - 1 to 2 pairs (Wiemeyer, 1972) 

from Chester River to Martin Wildlife Refuge along 
Eastern Shore of Md. to Va. border of Delmarva 
Peninsula - 500 to 600 pairs (Reese, 1973) 

Poplar Island - 30 to 35 pairs 
Broad Creek - 50 pairs 
Martin N.W.R. - 20 to 30 pairs 
Choptank River - 24 pairs 

South Marsh Island and Bloodworth Island - 
100 pairs 

Chincoteague Natl. Wildlife Refuge - 10 to 20 pairs 
(Appel, 1972); maximum of 8 pairs (Byrd, 1973). 

Assateague National Seashore - rare sightings, uncommon 
(Norris, 1973). 

Delaware - Atlantic shore, mostly out of Chesapeake Bay drainage, 
from Oak Orchard to Bombay Hook National Wildlife 
Range - 20 to 30 pairs (Norris, 1973) 

Oak Orchard and 

Little Bay area - 2 to 3 pairs 



C-17 



Little Assawoman Bay - 5 pairs 
Rehoboth Bay (1 colony) 

13 pairs 
(nesting on duck blinds) 
Cape Henlopen up to 
Reedy Island 6 to 8 pairs 

Bombay Hook Natl. 
Wildlife Refuge 1 pair 
Nantlcoke Refuge 1 pair 
Blackbird Creek 1 pair 



Status: 



Not officially classified as rare or endangered; however, is 
declining in specific regions and may be seriously threatened. 

Reasons for Decline :* 

1. It has been estimated that the annual production of ospreys 
must be between 0.95 to 1.30 young fledged/breeding female to maintain 
a stable population (Henry and Wight, 1969). (However, this may be 
underestimated by 5 to 10% if nests with no eggs are excluded from 
original figures (Henny and VanVelzen) and only the productive nests 
used, rather than active nests.) Byrd (1973) estimates an annual 
production of 1.22 young/productive nest is needed in Virginia. Reese 
(1965) calculated a minimum annual rate of decline of 2 to 3% in 
Maryland. In many areas of the Chesapeake Bay, annual production is now 
below these averages, as per following reports: 

Maryland shore, Charles County, of Potomac River - 0.70 
young fledged/active nest (Wiemeyer, 1971) 

Virginia shore, as above, Westmoreland Co. - 0.70 (Wiemeyer, 1972) . 

Talbot County, Eastern shore, Maryland .96 to 1.16 (1965 - 

1966) (Reese, 1970); 

Talbot County, Eastern Shore, Maryland - 1.03 (1964-65) (Reese, 

1965). 
Virginia shore from Norfolk to Potomac River - 0.69 (1971) 

0.60 (1972) (Byrd, 1973). 
Martin National Wildlife Refuge, Md. - 1.4 young/active nest, 

1.8 young/productive nest (Rhodes, 1972). 
Choptank River, Eastern Shore, Md. - 0.93 to 0.96 (Reese, 1972). 

2. The use of pesticides and other environmental contaminants is 
causing contamination In ospreys from accumulation of chlorinated hydro- 
carbons through the food chains, which in turn are responsible for egg 
failure in active nests. Reproductive decline in ospreys has been 
reported from many sections of the United States (Ames, 1966), Mickey, 



C-18 



(1969), etc. In Maryland, Hickey and Anderson (1968) reported 2.0 
to 2.8% decrease in egg shell weights. This is resulting in egg 
breakage and embryonic death. 

3. Losses to osprey eggs and young by predators such as 
raccoons and rats. 

4. Destruction of nests and nestlings by high tides, waves 
and winds . 

5. Destruction of nests by U. S. Coast Guard personnel when 
they are found on top of lighted navigational markers. For example, 
43 nests were removed in Talbot Co., between 1963-1969, (Reese, 1970) 
and maybe as high as 15 nests/year in the central Chesapeake Bay 
region (Reese, 1965). 

6. Increased use of boats and disturbances around osprey nest 
sites. 

Protective Measures Taken or Proposed ; 

1. Artificial nesting platforms have been erected and main- 
tained annually to enhance osprey nesting success. Reese (1970) 
erected 133 platforms between 1964 and 1969 in Talbot Co.; and a 
total of 72 nests platforms have been erected in Martin National 
Wildlife Refuge. These have shown a high degree of occupancy; for 
example, a total of 59 nests were active on the 72 structures 
between 1968 and 1971 (Rhodes, 1972). Production tripled since 
artificial nest structures were started in 1968, up to 1971. 

2. Coast Guard directive against removing osprey nests from 
navigational aids was issued by Admiral Bullock. It covers Coast 
Guard personnel and activities in Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina and part of New Jersey. Nests may not be touched during 
breeding season but may be removed afterwards if interfering with 
navigational aids. 

3. Dr. Byrd and students are putting up signs around marinas 
and fishing sites asking boaters and fishermen not to tie up next 
to osprey nests because this may drive off parents and cause death 
of eggs or young. 

4. Continued research on effects of pesticides on osprey 
reproduction such as presently being carried out at Patuxent Wild- 
life Research Center, and other research centers. 

5. Continued continental censusing and evaluation of populations, 
plus continued surveillance of Chesapeake Bay populations. 



C-19 



6. Discontinued use of pesticides and other chemicals so as to 
increase chances of reproductive success; also abatement of water 
pollution so as to increase fish (food) supply. 

Ecological Significance and General Importance ; 

1. Aesthetic value as a bird of prey and beautiful species. 

2. Important indicator species to monitor effects of pesticides, 
especially in Chesapeake Bay which is near large metropolitan centers. 

3. Predation and maintenance of health in prey populations. 

4. Bird-watching as a popular recreation. 

References : (personal communication) 

Mr. J. Appel, Refuge Manager, Chincoteague National Wildlife 
Refuge, Chincoteague, Maryland. 

Dr. M. Byrd, Dept. Biology, College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Virginia. 

Charles Lesser, Mgr. Technical Services, Division Fish and Wild- 
life, Dept. Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Edward 
Tathall Bldg., Legislative Add. and D Street, Dover, Delaware, 
19901. 

T. F. Norris, Supt. Assateague National Seashore, Rt. 2, Box 294, 
Berlin, Md. 

Jan Reese, Researcher, St. Michaels, Md., 21663; also c/o Medical 
College, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Stanley Wiemeyer, Research Biologist. Patuxent Wildlife Research 
Center, Laurel, Maryland. 

Literature: 



Ames, P. L. 1966. DDT residues in the eggs of the osprey in the 
northeastern U. S. and their relation to nesting success. Jour. 
Applied Kcology 3 (suppl) : 87-97. 

Byrd, M. (Edit.) 1973 In press. Proceedings of the first North 
American osprey research conference. Dept. Biology, College of 
William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va. 



C-20 



Henry, C. J. and J. C. Odgen. 1970. Estimated status of osprey 
populations in the United States. Jour. Wildlife Mgt. 34(1): 
214-21. 

Henry, C. J. and W. T. VanVelzen. 1972. Migration patterns 
and wintering localities of American ospreys. Jour. Wildlife 
Mgt. 36(4):1133-1141. 

Henry, C. J. and H. M. Wight. 1969. An endangered osprey 
population: estimates of mortality and production. Auk 86(2): 
188-198. 

Hickey, J. J. (Edit.) 1969. Peregrine falcon populations: 
their biology and decline. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison, 
Wise. 596 p. 

Hickey, C. J. and D. Anderson. 1968. Chlorinated hydrocarbons 
and eggshell changes in raptorial and fish-eating birds. 
Science 162 (3850) :271-273. 

Reese, J. 1965. Breeding status of osprey in central Chesa- 
peake Bay. Maryland Birdlife 21(4) :105-108. 

1969. A Maryland Osprey population 75 years ago 



and today. Maryland Birdlife, 25(4) :116-119. 

1970. Reproduction in a Chesapeake Bay osprey 



population. Auk 87(4) : 747-759. 



1972. Osprey nesting success along the Choptank River, 



Maryland, Chesapeake Science 13(3) :233-235. 

1972. Supplement Report #3: Breeding osprey survey 



of Choptank River, Md. , Maryland Ornithological Society, Un- 
published. 

Rhodes, L. 1972. Success of osprey nest structures at Martin 
National Wildlife Refuge. Jour. Wildlife Mgt. 36(4) :1296-1299. 

Wiemeyer, S. 1971. Reproductive success of Potomac River 
ospreys - 1971. Chesapeake Science, Vol. 12(4) :278-280. 



C-21 



ARCTIC PEREGRINE FALCON Falco peregrinus tundrius 
Order : FALCONIFORMES 
Family : PANDIONIDAE 



Estimated Numbers: known as fall (and spring to a lesser degree) 
migrants only, passing Atlantic oceanside. No known breeding birds 
now reported any^^here in eastern United States (Cade, 1973); up to 
2000 individuals (Mattox, 1973); about 1000 first year migrants 
(Ruos, 1972), 500+ individuals (Ward, 1973). 

Present Distribution : Usually sighted at Assateague Island in 
Maryland and Virginia (36 mi. x 1+ mi . ) along the Atlantic Coastal 
migration route. Largest concentrations found within two-mile swath 
of ocean. This is probably the largest and most significant resting 
and feeding site for Arctic Peregrines anywhere in continental United 
States (Ward, 1973). (Lies outside Chesapeake Bay area). 

The major area at Assateague Island is on the north edge of Fox Hill 
Levels. Other sites given in table below. 

PEREGRINE SIGHTINGS ON ASSATEAGUE ISLAND 
(taken from Table 4, Ward & Berry, 1972) 

1970 Observation Time 1971 Observation Time 

in % in % 

Maryland, North 

of State Park 1 3 12 11 

Md., State Park - NT 2 1 

Md. beach south 

State Park 18 52 53 54 

Md., Fox Hills 

Levels 41 36 40 27 

Md. , Little Fox 

Levels - NT 2 1 

Virginia Sector 8 9 11 6 



C-22 



Barrier beaches along islands of Delmarva Peninsula where falcons 
also occur include: Fisherman, Myrtle, Smith, Shipshoal, Hog, Revel, 
Cobb, Parramore, and Wreck Islands. 

Occasional sporadic sightings are seen around Chesapeake Bay region; 
more often spring migrants may be seen on west side of Chesapeake 
Bay and Delmarva oceanside. Birds usually stay 1 to 5 days en route. 
10% or less of the adults migrate along the Atlantic Coast beaches 
with the immatures. Usually the immafcures are in a ratio of 5 or 
more to every one adult (Shor, 1970, b) . 

Status: Classified as endangered on the U. S. Dept. of Interior's 
official list. No appreciable recent decline in general abundance 
of migrants along Atlantic Coast (Ruos, 1972; Ward & Berry, 1972; 
92nd Congress) . In addition, the age ratios of immatures to adults 
in 1970-71 seemed similar to those recorded since 1938 (Ward & Berry, 
1972; Ruos, 1970). Nevertheless, there is a strong implication that 
a substantial population decline took place after 1947 (Nye, 1969; 
Ward & Berry, 1972) . Appel (1972) reports fewer sightings of immatures 
at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge in 1972. 

Reasons for Decline : 

1. Shooting of birds. 

2. Destruction of nests. 

3. Stealing of eggs, young, and adults, and trapping by 
falconers and collectors. 

4. Breeding failure resulting from cumulative effects of 
pesticides and other environmental contaminants, affecting the 
reproductive and egg shell mechanisms. The problem resulting from 
cumulative effects of pesticides and other environmental contaminants 
is very well presented by Ward & Berry, 1972, p. 484-485. In addition, 
there is an occasional direct poisoning from pesticides. There is 
reason to believe that, based on experience with the American 
Peregrine Falcon, this subspecies will go into the same pattern of 
decline even though many migrants seem to come from Greenland where 
there is a low contamination by pesticides at present. 

5. Periodic short-term adverse effects of weather on repro- 
duction, for example, summer of 1972 (Ruos, 1970). 



C-23 



Protective Measures Taken : 

1. Federal and most State laws protect the species. 

2. Federal year-round protection by law in the U. S., plus most 
States and Provinces. 

3. Research investigations into artificial propagation techniques 
at Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology, Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center, and possible other research centers in Canada, plus 

by 20 or more falconer-aviculturalists. 

4. Protection by Denmark, and its colony, Greenland. 

5. Surveillance and protection of known nest sites out West and 
in Canada and Alaska. 

6. Cooperative program between the Canadian Wildlife Service 
and U. S. Wildlife agencies. 

7. Continued monitoring of pesticides and effects on birds of 
prey. 

Protective Measures Proposed : 

1. An immediate and forceful recommendation against the proposed 
hardtop road which is to be built between the Chesapeake Bay bridge in 
Maryland to the Virginia bridge, following along Assateague Island 
National Seashore. This development would destroy a significant 
wilderness area which falcons presently utilize for feeding and resting 
during migration. 

2. Further acquisition and protection of barrier beaches and 
islands along the Atlantic side of Delmarva Peninsula to provide 
additional safe resting sites for migrating falcons. 

3. Reduced use of persistent and other environmental contaminants 
in the U. S. and Canada and Europe. 

A. Continued research on reproductive failure reasons; and 
improved artificial breeding in captivity. 

5. Increased legal protection and enforcement in all countries 
where Peregrine Falcons breed and winter. 

6. Limit use by surf fishermen and motor vehicles along barrier 
beaches during time of migration of falcons, because resting should 
not be disturbed. fThls added stress factor may be more deleterious 
than normal if birds are loaded with DDT, DDK, HDD. The birds appear 
to have less tolerance to disturbances when in this condition). 



C-24 



7. Strengthen efforts to monitor flyways and obtain accurate annual 
migration numbers and any changes in numbers or age ratios which might 
signal decline of populations. 

8. Encourage competent falconers to trap immature birds and handle 
them with controlled diets (free of chemicals), exercise, artificial 
incubation of eggs to prevent breakage, etc. (Cade, 1970). 

9. Refrain from planting erosion grasses on barrier beaches, and 
forbid camping on traditional resting sites so as not to disturb birds 
unnecessarily or obstruct their surveillance of surroundings. 

Ecological Importance and General Importance : 

1. Aesthetic appeal as a magnificent bird of prey. 

2. Bird-watchers, photography, nature loving. 

3. Important indicator species to use in monitoring effects of 
pesticides, and other environmental contaminants. 

4. Predation which helps maintain a healthy population of prey 
species. 

5. Traditional, historical and scientific use of falcons by 
falconers. 

References : (personal communication) 

Mr. J. Appel, Refuge Mgr. Chincoteague National Wildlife 
Refuge, Chincoteague, Virginia. 

Dr. Tom Cade, Professor. Researcher. Laboratory of Ornithology, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. 

Mr. J. Mattox. Asst. Deputy Director. Dept. Natural Resources, 
907 Ohio Depts. Bldg., Columbus, Ohio, 43215. 

Dr. Prescott Ward. DVM. Ecology Division, Edgewood Arsenal, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

Mr. Jim Ruos, Research biologist. Patuxent Wildlife Research 
Center, Laurel, Maryland. 



C-25 



Literature : 



Cade, T. 1970. A program for managing the survival of Peregrine 
Falcons in the 1970's (Outline of ideas). Unpublished report. 
Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 14850. 

Hickey, J. J. (Edit.) 1969. Peregrine Falcon populations, their 
biology and decline. Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wise. 596 p. 

92nd Congress. Fish and Wildlife Legislation, Rt. 2, Hearings of 
subcommittee on Fish and Wildlife Conservation; Hawks, Owls, and 
Eagles. No. 92-14. Trends in populations of raptors in North 
America. Special briefing summary. Government Printing Office. 

Nye, A. G. , Jr. 1969 Assateague Island peregrines, 1938-1947. 
Paper presented at North American Falconers Association Peregrine 
Falcon symposium. Ft. Collins, Colo. Nov. 26-29, mimeo. 7 p. 

Ruos, J. L. 1970. Correlation of Arctic temperatures in July with 
numbers of tundra peregrines ( Falco peregrinus tundrius) seen per 
part day in October along the mid-Atlantic coast. Special Report, 
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Md. 5 p. 

Shor, W. 1970. (a). Banding recoveries of Arctic migrant peregrines 
of the Atlantic Coast and Greenland populations. Raptor Research 
News 4(4):125-127. 

Shor, W. 1970. (b) . Peregrine Falcon population dynamics deduced 
from band recovery data. Raptor Research News 4(2):49-59. 

Snow, C. 1972. Habitat management series for endangered species. 
Report No. 1. American Peregrine Falcon and Arctic Peregrine 
Falcon. Technical note. Bureau of Land Management, U.S.D.I., 
Washington, D. C. 



Ward, F. P. and R. B. Berry. 1972. Autumn migrations of Peregrine 
Falcons on Assateague Island, 1970-71. Jour. Wildlife Management, 
vol. 36(2):48A-492. 



C-26 



IPSWICH SPARROW* Passerculus princeps 
Order: PASSERIFORMES 
Family: FRINGILLIDAE 



* Discussed more fully in reports: "Rare, Endangered, and Threatened 
Fish and Wildlife of the Maine Coast", and "Rare, Endangered, and 
Threatened Fish and Wildlife of the Atlantic Coastal Plain", by 
A. LaBastille. 



Estimated Numbers and Present Distribution ; only rare sightings are 
reported from Chesapeake Bay region, mainly on Assateague Island and 
other barrier beaches of Delmarva Peninsula during migrations. 
Sparrows prefer undisturbed coastal beaches with dunes, rocks and 
grass; therefore, might be expected to stop and rest wherever appro- 
priate habitat still exists. 



C-27 



BOG TURTLE Cleirnnys muhlenbergi 
Order: TESTUDINATA 
Family: TESTUDINIDAE 



Estimated Numbers : Very difficult to estimate, but probably in magnitude 
of 30 adults in Chesapeake Bay area of Maryland (Nemuras, 1973); Arndt 
(1973) estimates 500+ adults in all Chesapeake Bay region; Barton (1973) 
estimates 1000+ (15 + colonies). 

Present Distribution : 

Maryland : only recorded from 3 counties: Baltimore, Harford 
and Cecil and most of these locations actually occur on the 
Piedmont area; however, the following are probably within the 
Chesapeake Bay drainage (Nemuras, 1967). 

a. Near Conowingo Dam, Susquehanna River, Cecil Co. 1965-68 
and 1947-1969 records. 

b. Broad Creek, Harford Co. - old record. 

c. Elk Neck, Cecil Co. - 1945 record. 

d. Grave Run Mills, Baltimore Co. - 1941 record. 

e. Eko, Baltimore Co. - 1960 record. 

f. Gunpowder Falls, Baltimore Co. - 1960 record. 

g. Sassafras River, Kent Co. - This is the southernmost point 
where turtles are found on Delmarva Peninsula. 

h. Bel Air, on Rt. 1 near Baltimore - possibly gone. 

Delaware : 

a. Newark, New Castle Co. - 1955 record (Nemuras, 1972). 

b. Northern 1/4 of New Castle Co. (Nemuras, 1972), 

c. Odessa, New Castle Co. (Arndt, 1972) 
Virginia : No colonics known on coastal plain. 



C-28 



Reasons for Decline : 

1. Destruction of bogs. 

2. Removal of large numbers of specimens from their colonies 
by collectors. Bog turtles bring $100 to $150 or more per turtle in 
pet stores and from individual sales. 

3. Drying up or pollution of cold, clear ground water and 
seepage water sources above bogs can change bog habitat and drive 
out turtles. 

4. Flooding, both natural (especially Hurricane Agnes), and 
man-made (by dams) destroys bogs and colonies of turtles. 

Protective Measures Taken ; 

1. Protected by state law in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey 
and Maryland (Oct. 1972). Illegal to take, sell, transport or hold 
these turtles, $1000 fine in Maryland; no enforcement or fines in 
New Jersey; $10 in Pennsylvania. 

2. A single swamp has been bought by a naturalist to save one 
colony of Bog Turtles. 

3. Extreme secrecy among Bog Turtles investigators and con- 
servationists to prevent information about locales from being made 
public. 

Protective Measures Proposed : 

1. Acquire known Bog Turtle bogs and swamps with adjacent 
drainage basins to save from development. Possibly introduce turtles 
to prime habitat in hopes of establishing new colonies. 

2. Set up state Bog Turtle sanctuaries. 

3. Strict fines and enforcement against purchase and sales by 
pet dealers and collectors. 

4. Public education about value of bogs and wetlands and their 
unique fauna. 

5. Continue censuses and life history studies to determine 
localities, numbers and disturbances, (may be undertaken in 1973 by 
James Weaver, for Smithsonian Institution). 



C-29 



Ecological Significance and General Values : 

1. Of no specific ecological importance, but does add to diversity 
of wetland fauna. 

2. A very old relic, boreal, species of evolutionary interest. 

3. Aesthetically pleasing reptile of remarkable intelligence and 
adaptability to captivity. . • 

4. Scientific and natural appeal of wetlands areas. 

References : (Personal communication) 

Dr. Rudolf Arndt, Senior Research Biologist, c/o Icthyological 
Associates, 100 S. Cass Street, Middletown, Del. 19709. 

Mr. A. J. Barton, c/o Undergraduate Program, National Science 
Foundation, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Ken Nerauras, Herpetologist, 5101 Gwynn Oak Ave., Baltimore, 
Maryland, 21207. 

Mr. Jim Weaver, Herpetologist, 30 Eshelman Rd., Lancaster, Pa. 17601. 

Literature : 

Arndt, R. G. 1972. Additional records of Clemmys muhlenbergi in 
Delaware, with notes on reproduction. Bull. Md. Herp. Soc. 
8(l):l-5. 

Barton, A. J. and J. W. Price, Sr. 1955. Our knowledge of the Bog 
Turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi , surveyed and augmented. Copeia. 
3:159-165. 

Campbell, H. W. 1960. The Bog Turtle in Md. The Md. Naturalist, 
vol. 30(1-4) : 15-16. 

Nemuras, K. T. 1966. Some records for Clemmys muhlenbergi in 
Cecil Co., Md. Bull. Md. Herp. Soc. 2(2):l-2. 

Nemuras, K. T. 1967. Notes on the natural history of Clemmys 
muhlenhcDAJ . Bull. Md. Herpetologlcal Society, vol. 3(4):80-96. 

Weaver, I. (editor; Bog Turtle Conservation News. Oct. 17, 1972. 
etc. 



C-30 



SEA TURTLES * Green Turtle - Che Ionia mydas 

Loggerhead Turtle - Caretta caretta 
Leatherback Turtle - Dermochelys coriacea 
Atlantic Ridley Turtle - Lepidochelys kempli 
Hawksbill Turtle - Eretmochelys imbrlcata 

Order : CHELONIA 

Family : CHELONIDAE 

* Discussed more fully in Atlantic Coastal Plain report. 

Estimated Numbers and Distribution : 

All are endangered or threatened. With exception of the Loggerhead 
Turtle. The occurrence of marine turtles is largely sporadic and unde- 
terminable along the Atlantic Coast, especially Chesapeake Bay area. 
The presence of barrier beaches and islands on the Atlantic side of 
Delmarva Peninsula, and bays of Chesapeake Bay Region, provide possible 
areas where turtles can rest and feed on journeys along coast. 

Green Turtle - rare but regular wanderer along coast - 20 to 30 
nest per year (Pritchard, 1972), Rainey, 1972), (Brongersman, 
1972) . Noted in summer months in Calvert County and Worcester 
County, Maryland, (Cooper, et al, 1972). 

Loggerhead Turtle - most important remaining nesting localities 
are between Florida Keys and North Carolina. 

Noted at Worcester, Wicomico, Dorchester and Calvert Counties in 
Maryland (Cooper, et al, 1972). 

Delaware Fish and Game personnel report few sightings at Delaware 
River Bay. May have nested historically along Delmarva barrier 
beaches. 

Leatherback Turtles - only sporadic and rare captures on coast 
(Pritchard, 1972), (Rainey, 1972), (Brongersman, 1972). Four 
specimens known from shores of Chesapeake Bay: (3 in Calvert 
County, one in Dorchester County, Cooper, et al. , 1972). 

Atlantic Ridley Turtle - commonly captured as immatures along 
coast as far as Mass. (Pritchard, 1972), Rainey, 1972) , (Brongers- 
man, 1972). 

4 Maryland specimens known: one from Baltimore Harbor, 2 from 



C-31 



Calvert County, 1 from mouth Potomac River (Cooper, et al, 1972). 

Hawksbill Turtle - very sporadic to Massachusetts (Brongersman, 
1972). No known specimens from Maryland, but undoubtedly occurs 
in estuaries of Potomac and other rivers (Cooper, et al, 1972). 

Protective Measures Proposed : 

1. Educate public about endangered status of sea turtles and urge 
their cooperation towards protecting any turtles seen while on beach or 
while boating, fishing or swimming. 

2. Acquire and protect barrier beaches along Atlantic Coast for 
those turtles which might possibly nest there. 

References : 

Delaware Fish and Wildlife Div., Dept. of Natural Resources and 
Environmental Control, Edward Tathall Bldg. , Dover, Del., 19901. 

Dr. P. Pritchard, Department of Zoology. Univ. of Florida, 
Gainesville, Florida, 32601. 

Mr. William Rainey. Caribbean Research Institute., College of 
Virgin Island, St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands, 00801. 

Literature: 



Brongersman, L. D. 1972. European Atlantic Turtles, Zoologische 
Verhandelingen, //121, 2 vols., E. J. Bryll Publ; Lyden, Netherlands. 

Cooper, J. E. (Chairman), et al. 1972. Endangered amphibians and 
reptiles of Maryland. Report of Maryland Herpetological Society, 
2643 No. Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 21218. 

Hardy, J. D., Jr. 1962. Comments on the Atlantic Ridley Turtle, 
Lepldochelys olivacca kempi , in the Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake 
Sci. 3(3):217-220. 

Hardy, J. D., Jr. 1969. Records of the Leatherback Turtle, 
Dermochelys coriaceg corlacea . from the Chesapeake Bay. Bull. Md. 
Herp. Soc. 5(3) :92-96. 

Harris, H. S. 1969. Distributional Survey; Maryland and the 
District of Columbia. Bull. Md. Herp. Soc. 5(4):97-161. 

Hardy, J. f). 1972. Reptiles of the Chesapeake Bay region. Kept. 
to U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. in_ press . 

Kllmklewlcz, M. K. 1972. KupLiles of Mason Neck. Atlantic 
Naturalist, 27(l):20-25. 



C-32 



MARYLAND DARTER Etheo stoma sellare 
Order: PERCIFORMES 
Family : PERCIDAE 



Estimated Numbers : There are evidently only one or two small populations, 
with numbers unknown. 

Present Distribution : Found only in two streams in Harford County, Md. 

1. Deer Creek - This is a tributary of Susquehanna River, 1.3 
miles southeast of Lanington along Stafford Road; second 
riffle above mouth of the Creek; 20 to 30 miles above 
Susquehanna. 

a. 34 specimens taken in State Park, May, 1965, by Dr. Raney 
and Dr. Schwartz (Tsai, 1973). 

b. 8 specimens taken July, 1970, and October, 1971, by 
Dave Thomas for private collection (Wang, 1973). 

c. No specimens taken after careful sampling along creek 
10-15 miles in length, checking over 100 holes and 
every few feet along course, upstream and downstream 
from point where specimens were caught previously (Wang, 
1973). 

2. Swan Creek - east Branch 

a. 2 specimens collected in 1912 by Radcliffe and Welsh; 
the type specimen (see literature) . 

b. 1 specimen taken June 10, 1962, by Drs. Knapp, Richards, 
Miller and Foster, probably for Smithsonian Institution 
collection (see literature). 

c. No specimens taken by Dr. Tsai summer of 1967 and 1968 
after sampling (Tsai, 1973). 

Status : Listed as endangered by USDI federal list of endangered species; 
also as rare or extinct (2(a)S) by lUCN list. Nevertheless, both organi- 
zations state "there are no data to support a statement that fish 
have declined". Species is not extinct, as of 1970-71, but is con- 
sidered endangered by Wang (1973) . Tsai (1973) considers species 
very rare. 



C-33 



Reasons for Decline : 

1. Limited habitat. Much of its habitat was drowned out in Ice 
Age Melt. 

2. Very small population. 

3. Possible slow natural change of aquatic environment, (e.g. 
water chemistry, stream contoi:(rs, stream bottom, ground 
water, etc.) . 

4. Evolutionary changes. Species is at the periphery of range 
of the subgenus. 

5. Potential pollution by housing and commercial developments 
near streams. Presently streams are not polluted, and those 
nearby developments are not apparently threatening. Potential 
damming of creeks. 

6. Extreme fluctuations in creeks could reduce population, as 
could siltation. 

7. Conowingo Dam, downstream on Susquehanna, has not had any 
apparent effect on the darters in Deer and Swan Creeks. 

Protective Measures Taken : 

None other than to request biologists and ichthyologists not to 
collect or disturb fishes and habitat. 

Protective Measures Proposed : 

1. Acquire stream banks and bed for several miles on either 
side of main center of population and maintain as wooded, natural 
sanctuary for Maryland Darter. This would prevent dams flooding up- 
stream and any developments would have to be set back from creek. 

2. Precautions are needed to assure proper handling of sewage, 
storm water run-off, and other wastes from nearby residential and 
commercial development to prevent seepage into creeks. 

3. Begin Investigations into life history of darter, including 
population movements, to determine possible migratory or seasonal 
movements In and out of crt!Gks. 

4. Prevent fish collectors from decimating existing populations. 



C-34 



Ecological Sisnificance and General Value : 

1. Biological and genetic values as unique evolutionary develop- 
ment and species. 

2. No value as aquarium fish or pets. 

3. Diversity of freshwater fish fauna. 

References : (personal communication) 

Dr. E. Raney, Director, Ichythyological Associates, Forest Drive, 
Ithaca, New York, 14850. 

Dr. Chufa Tsai, Institute of Natural Resources, University of 
Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 

Dr. Johnson Wang, Ichythyological Associates, Odessa, Delaware. 

Literature : 

Knapp, L. S. , W. J. Richards, R. V. Miller and N. R. Foster. 1963. 
Rediscovery of the percid fish Etheostoma sellare (Radclif fe and 
Welsh). Copeia:455. 

Radcliffe, L. and W. W. Welsh. 1914. Description of a new darter 
from Maryland. Bull. U. S. Bur. Fisheries, vol. 32:29-32. 



C-35 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Special appreciation is extended to the Office of Endangered 
Species of the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of 
Sport Fisheries and Wildlife for its cooperation and willingness to 
share information contained in the files and "Redbook" of threatened 
fish and wildlife. In addition, gratitude is expressed to the many 
Government biologists at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and at 
the Bird and Mammal Laboratories in the Smithsonian Institution for 
providing valuable information. 

A number of scientists at Universities and Cooperative Wildlife 
Research Units, National Park supervisors and biologists. National 
Wildlife Refuge Managers, and State Fish and Game Agents were con- 
tacted personally, or by telephone and letter. To each of them who 
responded with pertinent data, sincere thanks is given. 



APPENDIX D 

RARE, ENDANGERED, AND ENDEMIC PLANTS 
OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 



by 

Russell L. Kologiski 
Fonda R. Hivick 

Clyde W. Reed 
Dale Vi . Jenkins 



Center for Natural Areas 

Ecology Program 
Smithsonian Institution 



RARE, ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC PLANTS OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 



No list of rare, endangered or endemic plants exists 
for the Chesapeake Bay Region or for the States of Maryland, 
Virginia, or Delaware. A list was prepared by reviewing all of 
the botanical books and manuals of the region, contacting local 
and other botanists, and checking herbarium specimens in the 
National Museum of Natural History, the Gray Herbarium at Harvard, 
and the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. Specimen 
records were verified and exact locality data were obtained. 

Only native species of higher plants were included and 
rare introduced or adventive species were not considered. The 
rarity or endangered status was determined on the basis of rarity 
as a species, not with regard to local rarity in the region or 
State involved. There were 23 local or endemic species and valid 
varieties found in the region. Many of these species are known 
as endemic in only one or a few localities and no where else in 
the world. Several of the species are possibly extinct at present 
since they have not been collected for many years and have not 
been reported. Some of the species have wide distributions but 
are being rapidly depleted and may be endangered in the near 
future. No field studies were conducted to determine whether 
the species presently exist, but all recent information was 
utilized in determining rarity status. 

The data for each species are presented together with 
distribution maps showing the species distribution, and the de- 
tailed distribution in the Bay Region. It is hoped that this 
will stimulate study of rare and endangered flora and will help 
in preservation. 



D-1 



Summary List of Rare, Endangered, and Endemic Plants of the Chesapeake Bay 

Plant Name Map Symbol 

Alnus maritima (Marsh) Nuttall 1 

Aristida lanosa var. macera Fem.& Grisc. 10 

Bacopa simulans Fern. 8 

Bacopa stragula Fern. 9 

Baptisia pine to rum Larisey 5 

Calamovilfa brevipilis var. calvipes Fern. 24 

Cassia fasciculata var. macrosperma Fern. 11 
Diodia teres var. hystricina Fern.& Grisc. 

Eupatorium saltuense Fern. 4 

Gaylussacia brachycera (Michx.) Gray 2 

Juncus caesariensis Coville. 23 

Juncus griscomi Fern. 18 
Justicia mortui f luminis Fern. 

Lechea maritima var. virginica Hodgdon 3 

Oxypolis canbyi (Coult.& Rose) Gern. 12 
Panicum aculeatum Hitchc. & Chase 

Panicum mundum Fern. 13 

Pycnanthemum monotrichum Fern. 20 

Pyxidanthera brevifolla Wells. 21 

Rudbeckla heliopsldis T. 6. G. 22 

Schwalbea amcrlcana L . 6 

Sclrpus flaccidifolius (Fern.) Schuyler 17 

Trillium puflillum var. vlrginlanum Fern. 14 

D3 



D4 

Alnus marltima (Marsh) Nuttall 



BETULACEAE 
Seaside Alder 



Habit: Small tree or shrub 

Habitat: Pond shores and stream banks. 

Range: Southern Delaware and adiacent Maryland, also several 
small populations in Oklahoma; Sussex County, Delaware 
and Wicomico, Worcester, Caroline Cos. Maryland. 

Status: Endemic to the above regions, locally abundant., 

Reference: Mr. Peter Mazzeo, National Arboretum 
U.S. National Herbarium. 








/^.nooS.O M E R 5 



One inch = approximately eight miles 



D-5 




I^"6 GRAMINEAE 

Aristida lanosa var. macera Fern. & Grisc. 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry woods 

Range: Southeastern Virginia; Princess Anne County, Virginia 

Reference: Rhodora 37:135, 1935. 



D- 8 



Bacopa stmulans Fern. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 



Water-hyssop 



Habit : Low herb 

Habitat: Wet tidal shores 

Range: Chickahominy River; Charles City Co., Virginia. 

Status: Very rare, endemic and possibly endangered. 

Reference: M. L. Fernald. Rhodora, Vol. 44, p. 438, 

November, 1942. 

U.S. National Herbarium 

Gray Herbarium 



I 



•^ ''/^ ' It'^^^C^^^Z-^ '• N.-wKe.l' >"!''^ \ ^ P jk'-"-^\ L^j»__/- V.asl Points '(-\. v '—rl 

ai^g:>\/ 7lf-r',-'.A^ ._.^',>^v>1\!V ^ct^^L.^?^ 






^"K^-.^ ;■ 



/ 'V IS 













, Mlllrond 








f-^^- .:,»<-• ; 111.-- "..f,-^ <, Y I :^/ ^<r ^ 




A CAMP PtARV- „^'"-- N 

-■■ 'AJJ ^"-f^"^. 



nV-' 



D-9 




c.>v^ 



D-10 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 



Bacopa stragula Fern. 



Water-hyssop 



Habit : Low herb 

Habitat: Wet tidal shores 

Range: Chesapeake Bay drainage system; New Kent, Charles City 

and King William Cos. , Virginia. 
Status: Rare, endemic and possibly endangered. 

Reference: M.L. Fernald, Rhodora, Vol. 44 p. 434, November, 1942. 
U.S. National Herbarium. 



i 










-) 



\) \ ' -^ -* ■ I ^, ■/■A'-: 



^s^ 






.Rum(:-r(f I 



i V.^.' 



^•^/^;,o,^' 







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\ ;- \ 



K'i Wiliij 




)D ^t- 










• f ^ ^', 



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' >^'' 



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-</^ - 






D-11 




■ :.vv 



D-12 



LEGUMINOSAE 



Baptisla plnetorum Larisey 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Open woods and clearings 

Range: Accomac Co., Virginia 

Status: Very rare, endemic and probably endangered. 

Reference: Dr. Clyde Reed, Reed Herbarium, Baltimore, Maryland, 



ftdar hhnd 



X 



.•:...;■ /r-.-T-i-^-r-.-rl-^-'V ^ /-— H /^-T^acf^!V_.'J '— X-'' •■ " ■ 

■5-----^- -.V:;:,— ^-.--.r>^ G.olons^-vi----^ K: ^- /«OjkHaU -->^^ J" /-%■-' 




D-13 




^ ' ^'* GRAMINEAE 

Calamovllfa brevlpllls var. calvlpes Fern. 
Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Wet areas and sphagnum bogs 

Range: Southeastern Virginia; Greensville and Brunswick Counties, Virginia. 
Status : Very Rare 
Reference: A.B. Massey, Virginia Flora, 1961. 



D-15 




V >^'J 



D - 16 LEGUMINOSAE 

Cassia fasclculata var. macrosperma Fern, Partridge-Pea 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Tidal marshes 

Range: Eastern Virginia; Charles City, James City, New Kent, 

King William and King & Queen Cos., Virginia 
Status : Endemic 
Reference: M.L. Fernald, Rhodora, Vol. 42, p. 455, November, 1940. 



s.v 






I ■ ■:, 1^.\ 






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V L-: -■>-•"''. '• ' /■ '■■?Williamsbui'gf'.\:> 






4 



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-ijiK^. l/.,i- -^ 



;;^TftRV COUNTY 



^^^;--r'' COLONIAL HATr ' 
■■'>■■ HlSrORICAL PARK- 



D-17 




D-18 

RUBIACEAE 
Diodia teres var. hystrlclna Fern. & Grisc. Buttonweed 
Habit: Herb 
Habitat: Dry sands 

Range: Coastal Virginia; Essex, Princess Anne and Northampton Counties, Virginia. 
Status: Endemic 

Reference: U.S. National Herbarium 



D-19 




D-20 



\^V./X 4-1. V^k_fXXX~U_l 



Eupatorium saltuense Fern. 



Thoroughwort 



Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Rich woods, thickets and clearings 

Range: Southeastern Virginia; Surry, Sussex and Dinwiddie 

Cos. , Virginia 
Status: Endemic and rare 
Reference: M.L. Fernald, Rhodora, Vol. 44 , p . 461, December, 1942, 




Crcci 








,;■ ilV:.-.,V.'5 



V .. 



I'ond ■■■' 






. -^ - a Jo 



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ii 







- »%0<^vs Per, f '■ *^;>.' ^<,,„ \ 



^ 



30 
15' 



-/- 



.M 



WMV£HLY 4 Ml. 



X 



32 ,r. 



00' 



UNTV 



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/ 



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D-21 




D-22 



Gaylussacia brachycera (Michx.) Gray 



ERICACEAE 

Box Huckleberry 



Habit: Evergreen, low shrub 

Habitat: Sandy woods and slopes 

Range: Maryland and Delaware to Pennsylvania and Kentucky 

and eastern Tennessee; very local except in W. Virginia; 
Sussex Co., Delaware and Anne Arundel Co., Maryland. 
Status: Rare in areas outside of West Virginia but of special 

interest because it is possibly the oldest living plant. 
Reference: H. N. Moldenke, Wildflower, Vol. 33, pp. 4-8, 
January, 1957. 
U.S. National Herbarium. 




I i, 









.'^ V•''^'•;-^•-v^o<:'^f>^■^^Ol DEPOT, A . ''^^ ^-■^ « /■Q ( ■■' / /.^ -7 ,V°.°'-? 

A.=■.^r=^^^-v- , s . -.,'( >\ Riviera Eeacli Q/?;'Of'f '^- // <\ fl^^r^ ^ 't^\r 






: V, ;. 












/^ 



<!l 






iRotk Hdll; 






C':N>r ;.i 

. V. /' 



■■.V, •> L -):■■ ^ .r^o ■>-', '-•■ ■ ^r^^^ c, ri ■ I ' '■ EASTERN NF.CK /V V > '[ 

' .- - ■ . V. ■ • , V-( '-^- ° s "l"-..-.t / f'ATIONAl W^LDLIFf \a .JoE ' ^;/;:;:^-, ^' - 



: \ ;x^MFiV: -^-Vr^- 



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D-24 JUNCACEAE 

Juncus caesariensls Coville. 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Wet peaty places 

Range: New Jersey; Southeastern Virginia; Glen Burnle, Anne 
Arundel Co., Maryland; Elko Station, Henrico, Burgers 
Station, Dinwiddle, and James City Counties, 3 miles 
West of Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Status: Local. Rare. 

Reference: U. S. National Herbarium 
Gray Herbarium 
A. B. Massey, Virginia Flora, 1961 



D-25 




JUNCACEAE 



D-26 

Juncus sriscomi Fern. 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Wet woodlands 

Range: Princess Anne, James City and Norfolk Counties, Virginia, 

Status: Endemic and rare. 

Reference: M.L, Fernald, Rhodora 38: 401, Nov., 1936. 
U.S. National Herbarium 




</ i^, \ \ ,- V -Sand 



,-v :- 1 / 

/ ^^ l/- 



Ji^illovghb/ Spil 



» 4.:/-$ 






,M- ^ -^v V^N /K^ t- CEt.rER r^ -V .' \ w,^„^J , Norfolk RepioyV. =-.- C-rJ f' , j--..C>v.> -_:> -•,r>- _.:-'; : 

:!'j»^/^>|^>v ■f^rit^^.-Ay i \ / (.J?: ^ORFdiK [t-'\Q^'^ ■■-''-^^x ' i ^ ■^"''^'' ' '■ ■• \" 






> 









.'M.-c.r ^ 







D27 




X>'J 



D- 2 8 ACANTHACEAE 

Justicia mortulfluminis Fern. 

Habitat: Wooded bottomlands and shaded margins of quiet water. 
Range: Southhampton, Surry, Nansemond counties, Virginia. 
Status: Endemic and rare. 



D-29 




^'^0 CISTACEAE 

Lechea maritlma var. vlrglnlca Hodgdon Pinweed 

Habit: Herb 
Habitat: Dunes and open sand flats 

"""" C^u^S^^lrliSa?'" "''''"'' '"=' "''■ "'^""^ -"" Northampton 

Status : Endemic and rare 

Reference; Dr. Clyde Reed, Reed Herbarium, Baltimore. Maryland 




^.\ NEWS -% ^-^ %.^--»o...i_., 



C4^r CHtKLes I? M, 

*0 






I 




'tl%k i 






./^ 



^rliV;:Z'.;l''k-'AV)..t/« '"-^ fO.T srORV 






;"■"''" ~^- I /I 'us NAVAL ^ :1 HHAMPTOV^O^iX' ~ .^•~*S^r<-^i""^ iV/iSi' Oce.n . ^ ' ^ =^^' \ 

•/.: v v»==n"'"',^/° ' SUPPLY !_ -\ "^ '*'*'-'^^E''--*'-'AL- \-- ■' /'(i!^)' •"■^/~\-crf-w / VT^ ■:-'U:l->'n-^^ r^"- ^^■'~- r j 

^^ Sand ^^ >.Q ■..'!: S-K .\, J '• ^ -— \ , . NOf?FPtIk' ' -,' i'' I //'"■■ " ^--j >' ' ' ' . ^~^^^ -^xxC^r;:^~^ STAT^iX. 

v:-., -:;- ' v.^^p;,,./^ ^.i.-^- /;>^!,:-~. I. --, -i- . .■ ^^ ,-- 3M6^-^^'^ -< ^>' > ■ .•■^jotf-- \ "--A 

^ 'Pusf,sv,llci./S-/^ // y-y. ■ • .\:^ ^4<ff-v / \ v.-"--;.. ^^> ^ "^iTviiLvA *J I S "-. #-V^-'-- "0, 

: 'v_>ii^ — ^, / ... ;; ■■ -, •, ..I.'' ^ "- I i \ / -\ •-- i ' ■■ V. 'V^l f~) -- I. 1 ^T-»'- -■ v^ ■ Lir.khcri-. / •■ I ' 

ollT.,Ni_:— — '^^^ ^^f V^ ■:..■>■ ^ \ > ■, •■•"VAU . J' >■ i ^ ",1 ^ >■ '\ [J}l\,. 1 (! t>nr.nayin I "^wS^^- - „ ■ ' i 



/ lookout ffiwff , )■ 'J^, \ 



AJ^iiV—r^T) ;.;•"*='-'. Y - ^ <y=*< M^ars Cc^ner ;) 



' < '' ..-' ^ S.mr.iv ■; ''I' " .. 



I '-: 




■ V — <^ ^y 



■'^N^- /Mead As j^'^'^C/i;j^'-?(>-. IN>^" X^ \ ' Mi'-^rr >. 









D-31 




D - 32 UMBELLIFERAE 

Oxypolls canbyi (Coult. & Rose) Fern. Parsley Family 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Meadows and bogs 

Range: Hampton Co., South Carolina and Cooke Co., Lee Co., 

Georgia; Ellendale in Sussex Co., Bloomington, Delaware. 

Status: Local, perhaps extinct. 

References: National Herbarium 
Gray Herbarium 



D-33 




>. -' 



D - 34 GRAMINEAE 

Panlcum aculeatum Hitchc. & Chase 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist to wet woods 

Range: Connecticut, Eastern New York to North Carolina; District 
of Columbia and Arlington and Fairfax Counties, Virginia. 

Status: Rare and little known. 

References: Rhodora 8:209. 1906. 



D35 




GRAMINEAE 
Panic grass 



D-36 

Panicum mundum Fern. 
Habit: Herb 
Habitat: Peaty soil 

Range: Southeastern Virginia; Sussex. Princess Anne and Norfol. Counties, Virginia 
Status: Endemic and rare, possibly endangered. 

Re^rence: M.L. Fernald, Rhodora, Vol 38 n 39? m k 

, vuj.. JO, p. jy^^ November, 1936. 




D.37 




LAMIACEAE 
Mountain mint 



D-38 

Pycnanthemum monotrichum Fern. 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry sandy woods and clearings 

Range: Southeastern Virginia; Sussex and Nanseraond Counties, Virginia. 

Status: -Endemic and rare 

References: M.L. Fernald, Rhodora, Vol. 47, p. 176, May, 1945. 



~-J\,^ <'^" s-:i"5^ '^■°/ - '"■ ~ county' / - ■■' -'v/ ■■■ ; 



'r<£' 









*^,. 









D'39 




D-40 DIAPENSIACEAE 

Pyxidanthera brevifolla Wells Flowering moss ; pyxie 

Habit : Herb 

Habitat: Sandy pine barrens 

Range: Burlington, New Jersey; Ocean, Moumouth and Atlantic 

Cos., South Carolina; Nansemond, and South of Zuni and 
South of Lee's Mill, Isle of Wight Counties, Virginia. 

References: Gray Herbarium 

A. B. Massey, Virginia Flora, 1961. 



D-41 




D-42 COMPOSITAE 

Rudbeckla hellopsldis T. & G. 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat : Dry woods - pine and oak woods and thickets . 

Range: Southeastern Virginia, Georgia and Alabama; 2 to 3 
miles North of Disputanta, Prince George County, 
Virginia; South Carolina and North Carolina* 

Status: Very local; rare. 

Reference: National Herbarium 

North Carolina State University Herbarium 



D-4 3 




Rudbeckia heliopsidis T. & G. 






1 00 2 00 3 00 /JOO Vjt''ni-— V 

' I ' ' I I ■ I ■ I ■ ' ' ' ■ I V/' 






D-44 

Schwalbca americana L. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Chaffseed 



Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist sandy soil; pinelands, oakwoods and clearings. 

Range: New England south to Florida and Texas; Wicomico and Worcester 
Counties, Maryland; New Castle County, Delaware; and Greenville 
County, Virginia. 

Status: Rare and endangered 

Reference: U.S. National Herbarium 
Gray Herbarium 








/, . "'•■"i Oceon Cify 



- _.\/ -i^ ''•'>"5'>'EACUt ISLAND 
S7 ,'"" /,- "-'E pari; 



1/1 ,•-•>' ,^V/' 



'-'(§■, ASSAlfAGUE 






-'^■'j^, II 



MP 










■^ I'f/.'. ' 






X -,-•), -•«-:.i }.r /•loofah' I ~^^, ■'- - 






1-. — ''/itf- 







~v. 






V Subsi3boiir'--'-.V~/ , Cmporia ^""P^ 










N6 •■- • 



D-45 




D ■ 46 CYPERACEAE 

Sclrpus f laccidlfollus (Fern.) Schuyler 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Wooded alluvial bottomland 

Range: Southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina; Southampton 
County, Virginia. 

Status: Endemic and rare. 

References: Dr. A.E. Schuyler, Rhodora 69: 198-202, 1967. 
U.S. National Herbarium 



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D-47 




Scirpus flaccidifolius 
(Fern.) Schuyler 






D-48 



Trillium puslllum var. v lr^inlanum Fern. 



LILIACEAE 
Trillium 



Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Damp woodlands 

Range: Southeastern Virginia, Nansemand Co. and Chesapeake City, 

Virginia. 
Status: Rare and endangered 

Reference: Brooke Meanley, Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 24, 
No. 1, Summer 1969 





D'49 




APPENDIX E 



PRESENTLY PROTECTED AREAS OF CHESAPEAKE BAY 



David W. Kunhardt 
Research Assistant 

and staff 



\ 

v. 



SUMMARY OF PRESENTLY PROTECTED AREAS OF CHESAPEAKE BAY 

Ownership Number of Sites Acres Hectares ^ 

FEDERAL 

yj.litary ^ 43 266,000 107,500 

National Wildlife Refuges'- 8 32,400 13,100 

O^'^^^ 20 56,200 22^700 

STATE 

^°^ests 5 20,750 8,380 

^^^^s 36 56,760 22,930 

Wildlife Management Areas-* 30 78,700 31 800 

°'='^'^^ 26 80,'600 32^570 

PRIVATE OR QUASI-PUBLIC 8 10,770 4,350 



Total 602,200 243,300 



The hectare is a unit of area in the metric system. One hectare equals 
10,000 square meters or 2.471 acres. There are approximately 258 
hectares per square mile. 

2 

Includes some land not in the N.W.R. system but administered by the 
U. S. Department of Interior's Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 

3 
Includes some land not in the W.M.A. systems but held with Identical 
management practices. Also includes Virginia Natural Areas. 



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4. Existing Preserved Natural Areas 

Designation of preserved natural areas is difficult since 
there are different types of preservation and protection. State and 
federal forests preserve flora and fauna but are subject to cutting, 
management, and multiple use. State and federal parks have much 
human use and are subject to management and partial development 
for recreation. The status of State and federal wildlife management 
areas and refuges is also variable since they preserve wildlife and 
flora, but are subject to management and change. 

There are 17 sites (Table 3) which may be considered as 
preserved natural areas, but the status of some of these areas are 
not clear, particularly those preserved by State departments as 
forests, parks, or refuges. This list should be considered as 
very tentative, since some of the areas may not qualify as fully 
preserved natural areas. 

The Nature Conservancy sites, the Natural Landmark areas, and 
the Smithsonian Institution areas can be considered as preserved 
natural areas. The State of Virginia has designated three natural 
areas — Charles C. Steirly Natural Area, Parkers Marsh Natural Area, and 
Seashore Natural Area. The latter is also a State Park with some tourist 
facilities and use. 



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the Report of the 
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The preparation of this report was financed in part through a 
cocnprchenslvp planning grant from the Department of Housing and 
Urban Dovelopmont as administered by the Maryland Department of 
State Planning. 



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